Production technology

1 Banana

Planting and spacing

Variety specific HDP with different planting system has been worked out which is as follows-
Plant spacing Plants/ha Varieties
1.2×1.5×2.4m (Paired row) 2808 Gandevi selection
1.0 x 1.2 x 2.0 m (Paired row) 6250 Grand Naine and Basrai
1.2×1.2×2.0m (Paired row) 5208 Palayankodan, Rasthali, Dwarf Cavendish & Robusta, Jahaji and Malbhog
2 x 3 m (3 suckers/hill) 5001 Rajapuri, Grand Naine, Jahaji, Nendran, Robusta, Alpan and Kothia
1.8×3.6m (3 suckers/hill)

300:90:450 g/N:P2O5:K2O

4629 Robusta, Grand Naine, Alpan and Kathia
Paired row system at 1.2×1.2 x 2.0m 5208 plants/ha 3 plants/hill at 1.8 x 3.6 m 4630 plants/ha
  • To produce more plantlets by using the macro propagation technique, the technology came out across 9 centres is application of saw dust (2 kg/corm) + VAM (30g/corm) + BAP (4ml /l) + Bacillus subtilis (30 g/corm) for 11 varieties. Whereas for variety Rajapuri the effective treatment was application of saw dust (2 kg/corm) + VAM (30 g/corm) + Tricohderma viride (30 g/corm). The treatment has taken less number of days for formation of bud. The quality of plantlets was good with more number of supporting leaves and roots.

Macro-propagation techniques in banana

  • The sucker treatment package developed to reduce the infestation level of nematodes at different centres included paring and pralinage of corms with carbofuran (40 g per sucker).
  • Sucker treatment for rhizome rot was also standardized by dipping disease free suckers in copper oxychloride (0.4%) + streptocycline (0.003%) for 45 minutes.

High-density planting and Nutrient dose

  • It is recommended to accommodate 5,000 plants/ha by planting 3 plants per hill at 2 m x 3 m spacing with 50% reduction of RDF at Gandevi (72 t/ha Grand Naine) and Jorhat (80 t/ha Jahaji) centres and 25% reduction of RDF at Mohanpur (55 t/ha Martaman).
  • For Bhubaneswar and Kannara centres, HDP with 5,000 plants/ha (planting 3 plants per hill at 2 m x 3 m spacing) with full RDF is recommended (60 t/ha at Bhubaneswar for Grand Naine and 39 t/ha at Kannara for Nendran).
  • For Coimbatore centre, planting of 3 plants per pit at 1.8 m x 3.6 m spacing by accommodating 4,630 plants/ha with 100% RDF is recommended (63 t/ha for Poovan).
  • At Jalgaon centre, HDP (5,000 or 4,630/ha) with 100% RDF and conventional system (4,444/ha at 0.9×2.1×1.5 m) are recommended as an alternative to conventional system (84 t/ha for Grand Naine).
Variety-specific HDP along with nutrient dosage was standardized for different regions as follows-
Density RDF (%) Centre/variety
4650 to 5000 plants/ha 50 Rajapuri at Arabhavi*, Robusta* and Poovan* at Coimbatore
75 Alpan* (Pusa), Robusta* (Kovvur), Martaman ** (Mohanpur) and Grand Naine (Gandevi)
100 Borjahji * (Jorhat), Grand Naine* (Coimbatore) and Nendran* (Kannara)
* 3 suckers/hill 1.8x 3.6m= 4600 plants/ha
**3 suckers /hill 2x3m = 5000 plants/ha

Fertilizer dose

Region specific micronutrient combinations have been recommended.

  • Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + FeSO4 (0.2%) + CuSO4 (0.2%) + H3BO3 (0.1%) at 3rd, 5th and 7th month after planting increased the yield of Robusta banana under Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) and Bhubaneswar (Odisha) conditions.
  • For Kerala (cv. Nendran and Rasthali) and Maharashtra (cv. Basrai) conditions highest bunch weight was reported with ZnSO4 (0.5%) + FeSO4 (0.5%) spray.
  • Foliar spraying of ZnSO4 (0.5%) and FeSO4 (0.5%) and H3BO3 (0.1%) during 3rd, 5th and 7th MAP has been recommended for Martaman banana under West Bengal conditions.

Use of bio fertilizers

  • Variety-specific bio-fertiliser with nutrient dose was standardized for different regions of the country-
Bio-fertilizer (g/plant/crop) % Variety (centre)
AM PSB Azo T. harz RDF
250 50 50 50 100 Robusta and Rasthali (Coimbatore), Grand Naine (Jalgaon), Barjahaji (Jorhat) & Martman (Mohanpur).
250 50 50 50 75 Rajapuri (Arabhavi), Alpan (Pusa) & Grand Naine (Gandevi).
250 50 50 50 50 Karpur chakkarkeli (Kovvur).
0 50 0 0 100 Nendran (Kannara)
AM= Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza; Azo=Azospirillum, T. harz= Trichoderma harzianum and RDF = Recommended dose of fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O)

Organic nutrient sources for banana

  • The organic nutrient schedule with application of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 kg + neem cake @ 1.25 kg + vermicompost @ 5 kg and wood ash @ 1.75 kg per plant + triple green manuring with sunhemp (once) and cowpea (twice), along with bio fertilizers viz., AM @ 25 g, Azospirillum @ 50 g, PSB @ 50 g and Trichoderma harzianum @ 50 g per plant registered higher yield in cv. Grand Naine at Jorhat (46.8 t/ha) and Mohanpur (70.84 t/ha) and in cv. Nendran at Kannara.

Techniques for improving water use efficiency

  • Drip irrigation (15 l/plant/day) during planting to 4th month, 20 l during 5th month to shooting and 25 l during shooting till 15 days prior to harvest was the standardized recommendation for banana by the ICAR-AICRP centre at Coimbatore.
  • Daily irrigation @ 8-12 l (1-4 months), 13-18 l (5-7 months), 19-25 l (7-9 months) and 19-25 l (10-12 months) was recommended by Arabhavi centre in Karnataka.
  • The standardized schedule for drip irrigation by Gandevi centre was application of water at 0.8, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 pan evaporation (Ep) during planting to bud initiation (July-November), bud initiation to shooting (December-April), shooting to last hand opening (May) and last hand opening to one month before harvesting (June), respectively. The system should be operated on alternate day placing two drippers per plant with a discharge rate 4 LPH for 150, 190 and 245 minutes during October to April, May and June, respectively.
  • The irrigation schedule was optimized for banana tract in Jalgaon and Pusa regions, which was given below.
Jalgaon region Pusa region
Period (Months After Planting-MAP) Irrigation water


Period (Months After Planting-MAP) Irrigation water


1 – 4 months 4.5 to 6.5 1st to 4th MAP 4-5 (June – Sept)
5 to 9 months 9 to 11 5th to 6th MAP 6-7 (Oct-Nov)
10th month 14 to 16 7th to 9th MAP 4-6 (Dec– Feb)
11th month 18 to 20 10th to 11th MAP 10-14 (March-April)
12th month 21 to 24 12th to 13th MAP 15-18 (May – June)
14th to 16th MAP 10-12 (July – Sept)

Fertigation (Techniques for improving water and nutrient use efficiency)

  • Drip fertigation at 80% of recommended NK (in per cent ratio of 40:25, 30:35, 30:25 and 0:15 at 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th MAP, respectively) was standardized for cv. Grand Naine of banana at Gandevi.
  • Drip fertigation of 75% of recommended N and K2O in the form of urea and muriate of potash and soil application of P were recommended for banana by ICAR-AICRP centre at Jalgoan and Gandevi (Grand Naine), Arabhavi (Rajapuri) and Kannara (Nendran) resulted in saving N and K to the tune of 25%
  • Drip fertigation of 50% of RDF for heavy soils and 75% of RDF for light soils was found sufficient for banana in Kovvur region of Andhra Pradesh to realize higher yields and to reduce the crop cycle by 20 days. About 80% of the N&K fertilizers should be given in 20 split doses before shooting at weekly intervals starting from 6th week after planting to 25th week after planting and the remaining 20% of the N& K fertilizers should be given after shooting in 4 splits at weekly intervals from 33rd to 36th week after planting
  • The optimized fertigation schedule for banana belt of Coimbatore region is as follows (75% RD of N and K2O).
Weeks after planting N (%) P2O5 (%) K2O (%)
9 -18 (for 10 weeks) 30 100 20
19 -30 (for 12 weeks) 50 40
31 – 42 (for 12 weeks) 20 32
43 -45 (for 3 weeks) 8
Total 100 100 100

Standardized weed management practices

  • Power tilling, application of glyphosate (0.5%), double crop of cowpea and incorporation of cowpea in soil were the suggested weed management practices at Mohanpur (65% weed control efficiency). The ICAR-AICRP centre at Pusa recommended either growing cowpea in inter-row space + incorporation of cow pea in soil at flowering stage or hand weeding up to 3rd month stage + glyphosate (1%) for effective weed control.
  • At Coimbatore, pre-emergence application diuron and post emergence application of combination of diuron (4 kg/ha) + gramaxone (1.5 l/ha) were recommended to control weeds.

Intercropping and cropping systems

  • Through ICAR-AICRP trials, best inter-crops recommended for banana orchard are onion at Arabhavi, lab-lab bean at Coimbatore, cabbage at Gandevi, cowpea or groundnut (var. Phule Pragati) in Kharif season at Jalgaon, Knol-khol and elephant foot yam at Jorhat, turmeric during February-March at Kannara, Amorphophallus and Colocasia at Kovvur and cabbage at Mohanpur. The ICAR-AICRP centre of Kannara also recommended that the crop sequence involving banana-paddy-cowpea-elephant foot yam was found to be the best, with the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.33.
B- intercrop
Intercropping of banana with cowpea

Management practices for improving yield and quality

  • To improve the finger size and bunch appearance, bunch spray of CPPU (4ppm) immediately after last hand opening and 15 days after last hand opening for Robusta at Coimbatore along with application of 300:50:300g N:P2O5:K2O/plant/crop has been effective. However, for Nendran at Kannara, for Grand Naine at Gandevi and for cv. Barjahaji at Jorhat, bunch spray of 2, 4 – D (10ppm) along with 250-300:40-90:250-300g N:P2O5:K2O/ plant/ crop was found beneficial. The ICAR-AICRP centre at Coimbatore suggested spraying of 2,4-D (25 ppm) on Poovan and CO-1 varieties of banana after the opening of last hand to improve the grade of bunches and to remove seediness in Poovan variety.
  • Application of N:P2O5:K2O level of 200:50:200 g/plant with KH2PO4 (0.5%) at 5 and 20 days after last hand opening is also recommended to increase the yield and quality of banana at Jalgoan, Kovvur and Mohanpur centres. However, at Jalgaon, spraying of 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) + urea (1%) on banana bunches 15 days after flowering was beneficial.
  • For improving the appearance of the bunch and enhance maturity, eco-friendly approaches like removal of floral remnants and bunch covering (especially in winter) with white polythene bags (200 guage thickness) having 2% vent holes has been advocated at all centres. However, at Jalgaon, bunch covering with white polyethylene bags (100-gauge thickness) with 6% vent was found to improve quality in banana. Further, the Kovvur centre has also advocated that the size of the vent holes in summer is 4%. The combination of the above two technologies has been followed by most of the farmers.
  • At Mohanpur, spraying bunches with Potassium (2%) + Borax (0.5%) + 2,4–D (10 ppm) at last hand opening was recommended for reducing the lumpiness (8.01% as against 16.20% in control) of Martaman.

Banana fibre extraction

  • Experiments on evaluation of different varieties of banana for fibre extraction revealed that treatments of NaOH at 0.1 to 1% concentration boiling of pseudostem for 30 minutes provided the highest fibre recovery at Gandevi and Pusa in cv. Grand Naine, whereas at Jalgaon, Kovvur and Mohanpur, the machine method provided the highest fibre recovery. Further, treatments of boiling for 30 minutes in NaOH (0.1%) also provided the highest cellulose and pectin contents in cv. Grand Naine, whereas lignin remained the highest in cv. Martaman.
Banana fibre extraction1 (2)

2 Citrus

Planting method, spacing and rootstocks

  • At Akola, drenching with Ridomil MZ-72 (0.2%) during June, August and December months and spraying of copper oxychloride (0.3%) during October and April after transplanting of Rough lemon seedlings was recommended to control the mortality.
  • For control of Rough lemon seedling mortality in secondary nursery, soil solarization for 45 days during May and June with drenching of metalaxyl MZ (0.2%) during August, December and June and spraying of metalaxyl MZ (0.2%) during October, February and April were advocated by the ICAR-AICRP centre at Akola.
  • Use of rootstock Alemow (C. macrophylla) for Nagpur mandarin, Alemon in case of acid lime, chase Rough lemon for getting less seeded acid lime has been recommended in Maharashtra and testing its suitability at other regions also.

Crop Regulation

  • Studies on regulation of flowering in acid lime revealed that application of GA3 (50 ppm) during June and cycocel (1000 ppm) during September followed by salicylic acid (200 ppm at Akola) or KNO3 (1-2% at Periyakulam and Rahuri) during October has recorded maximum number of flowers per shoot and off season yield. Further, it was also observed that soil moisture stress for 30 days followed by foliar application of ascorbic acid (50ppm) has recorded the highest yield (1.5 to 2.2 times compared to untreated check).

Fertilizer dose

  • Region-specific nutrient dosages were recommended based on ICAR-AICRP trials, as follows-






Organics Crop
600 225 450 7.5kg neem cake Sathgudi sweet orange and acid lime (Tirupati)
800 300 600 7.5kg neem cake Nagpur mandarin (Akola), Sweet orange (Rahuri)
600 300 600 7.5kg neem cake Acid lime (Akola)
600 300 600 15kg neem cake Acid lime (Periyakulam)
600 300 600 15 kg FYM Acid lime (Rahuri)

INM in fruit crops

  • Integrated nutrient management in sweet orange revealed that application of 75% RDF + AM (500 g/plant) + PSB (100 g/plant) + Azospirillum (100 g/plant) + Trichoderma harzianum (100 g/plant) has given highest yield (28.14 t/ha) with highest benefit cost ratio of 2.25 and shelf life of 20.5 days at Tirupati.
  • Recent results on the INM experiments enabled in ICAR-AICRP on Fruits for identifying following schedule, thus enabling in saving inorganic source of RDF to the tune of 25% at some places. The region-specific schedule is as follows:
Bio-fertilizer (g/plant) RDF Crop
AM PSB Azo T. harz %
500 100 100 100 100 Acid lime (Balaji at Periyakulam, Sai Sharbati at Rahuri) Sweet orange (Rahuri)
500 100 100 100 75 Mandarin (Akola, Ludhiana, Tinsukia) and sweet orange (Tirupati) and Acid lime (Akola)
AM= Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza; Azo=Azospirillum; T. harz= Trichoderma harzianum and RDF = Recommended dose of fertilizers (split application as per the standard package)

NB: FYM, neem cake and bio fertilizers were to be applied as basal dose in the month of June.

INM Citrus mandarin_ Tr
  • Soil application of 20 kg vermicompost + 8 kg neem cake per tree per year along with foliar spray of neem seed kernel extract – NSKE (5%) and neem oil (1%) for plant protection was recommended for higher yield and quality fruits of organically grown sweet orange (Ambia bahar) in medium black soils of Western Maharashtra.

Fertigation in fruit crops

  • Evaluation of drip fertigation concept enabled saving of 25-50% nutrient dose and region specific technologies have been furnished hereunder.
  • At Akola, drip fertigation level of 450g N: 225g K2O (75% RDF) and soil application of 300 g P2O5 per tree per year was optimized for acid lime.
  • For higher production of quality fruits of sweet orange during Ambia bahar at Rahuri, drip fertigation of 75% recommended dose of N and K (600 g N and 450 g K2O per tree per year) and soil application of 20 kg FYM + 15 kg neem cake + 300 g P2O5 was recommended for medium black soils.
  • Drip fertigation of 50% RDF (800g N: 200g K2O per tree per year) and soil application of FYM (40 kg)+ neem cake (8 kg) + P2O5 (350 g) per tree were recommended for bearing Sathgudi sweet orange at Tirupati.
Fertigation mandarin (2)
Fertigation in Citrus

Weed management

  • Application of grammoxone @ 1.5 l/ha followed by application of diuron @ 1.0kg/ha after 20 days was recommended for weed control in acid lime and Nagpur mandarin at Akola.
  • Spraying of 1 % glycel 41% SL + 2% urea (10 ml glycel + 20 g urea per liter of water) at 25 days after germination of weeds in rainy season was recommended in Nagpur mandarin at Akola.
  • For the effective control of weeds in Ambia bahar of mosambi, three sprays of glyphosate @ 2 kg a.i. per ha followed by second spray @ 1 kg a.i. and third spray @ 2 kg a.i./ha was recommended for sweet orange at Rahuri.
  • Mulching with dry leaves (50.6 kg per 9 m2) or paddy husk (50.6 kg per 9 m2) reduced dicot weeds effectively in sweet orange. Among the chemical weedicides, diuron as pre-emergence and gramoxone+diuron as post-emergence application were effective at Tirupati.

Intercropping and cropping systems

  • In Kinnow mandarin, maximum profit per hectare was obtained with crop rotation of guara + wheat followed by guara + fenugreek at Ludhiana (28% more income over check).
  • Intercropping of groundnut in kharif, Onion in rabi and French bean in summer with provision of irrigation facilities in acid lime were recommended by Rahuri centre.
  • For obtaining maximum monetary returns from pre-bearing (1-5 years) orchard of sweet orange, intercropping either with green gram in kharif and gram in rabi or ground nut in kharif and onion in rabi was advocated by Rahuri centre.

Rejuvenation of old and senile orchards

  • The trial for rejuvenating old and senile Citrus orchards revealed that soil application of 25 kg FYM + 5 kg neem cake + multiple microbial culture of ICAR-CCRI (T. harzanium, Pseudomonas flouroscens and Azotobacter/Azospirillum) + 1 kg Dolomite/plant/year + 50% RDF (comprising 100 g ZnSO4 + 50 g borax/plant) as soil application + 50% RDF (comprising 100 g ZnSO4 + 50 g borax/plant) as foliar application in two equal splits (pre- and post-monsoon) was effective in Khasi mandarin at Tinsukia. This treatment was effective in rejuvenating the old and senile Citrus orchards of Nagpur mandarin at Akola and Kinnow mandarin at Ludhiana, wherein the micronutrient mixture used was FeSO4, MnSO4 and ZnSO4 and the dose was 200 g each per plant for Nagpur mandarin and 100 g each per plant for Kinnow mandarin.
Rejuvenation mandarin

3 Grapes

Fertilizer dosage recommendation

  • The standardized fertilizer level for Thompson Seedless by Rajendranagar centre of Telangana was soil application of 75:50:150g N: P2O: K2O per vine per year for high brix yield.

Techniques for improving water use efficiency

  • Stage wise drip irrigation schedule was standardized for Thompson Seedless on Dogridge by the ICAR-AICRP centre at Rajendranagar. Drip irrigation at 60% ER during shoot growth and 20 or 40% ER during bud differentiation depending on rainfall was found promising.

Drip fertigation

  • Drip fertigation at the rate of 50 or 80 per cent of RDF (500 kg N, 500 kg P2O5 1000 kg K2O/ha/year) based on petiole analysis was advocated for Thompson Seedless on Dogridge after back pruning. Split application of nutrients at growth, bud differentiation and cane maturity after back pruning was suggested for improved input use efficiency.

Preharvest sprays for improving yield and quality

  • Two foliar sprays of potassium sulphate (1.5%) first one week after fruit set and second at colour break stage were suggested to improve the quality and colour of Perlette grapes at Ludhiana.

4 Guava

Planting method and spacing

  • The double hedge row system of planting was found profitable and recorded maximum yield (28.72 t/ha as against 1.69 t/ha with the square system of planting), as well as maximum B:C ratio (4.2) for cv. Sardar at Udaipur. Similar results were also reported at Pantnagar (cv. Sardar) and Sabour (cv. Allahabad Safeda).
  • Among the four spacing systems tested (1.0m X 1.0m, 1.5m X 1.5m, 2.0m X 1.0m and 2.0m X 1.5m), significantly highest yield was reported in the 1m x 1m spacing at Rahuri (13.98 t/ha) and Udaipur (20.11 t/ha) for cv. Sardar (54% higher yield at Rahuri and 11.53% higher yield at Udaipur over 2.0m X 1.5m spacing) during initial stage of the cropping. In addition, at Bhatinda, it was also for the 1m x 1m spacing (22.1 t/ha) with 56% higher yield over 2.0m X 1.5m spacing.


  • Application of 50% RDF (250g N, 100g P2O5, 250g K2O) with 50 kg FYM and 250 g Azospirillum is recommended for getting higher yield and quality at Pantnagar.

Crop regulation and rejuvenation

  • Stoppage of irrigation during April-May and spraying of 15% fertilizer grade urea in April-May (at 50% bloom stage) were recommended for crop regulation at Rewa.
  • For rejuvenation of guava, heading back to the extent of 1.0 to 1.5 m height above the ground level during April-May and newly emerging shoots (4-5/branch) could grow up to length of about 50-60 cm. These shoots were further pruned 50 per cent intensity for emerging of multiple shoots below the pruning point simultaneously further profuse emerging shoots in the inner canopy were also pruned out in May to promote branching, that produce flowering in June- July. Bending on upright shoots gave good grade fruits of guava.

5 Jackfruit

  • The average grafting success rate was maximum (75 to 90%) in the inarching method. Initial results on the effect of rootstocks on the performance of jackfruit revealed that Ainipala as rootstock produced vigorous growth of grafted plants.

6 Litchi

Planting method and spacing

  • Double hedge planting method was standardised for Litchi at Mohanpur. A spacing of 5m between inter and intra rows with in a hedgerow and a spacing of 10 m between hedge rows (5 m x 5m x 10 m) was found ideal in enhancing the productivity.

7 Mango

Planting method, spacing and high density planting and Pruning

  • Double hedge planting method was recommended for mango at Mohanpur. A spacing of 5m between inter and intra rows within a hedge row and a spacing of 10 m between hedge rows (5 m x 5m x 10 m) was found optimum. Similar planting system was also found suitable for cv. Neelam and Kalepad at Periyakulam. In Sabour, square system of planting at 10mx10m for cv. Amrapali during July to September period and high density planting (2.5m x 1.25m) were recommended for mango. In Rewa, high density planting of cv. Amrapali at 2.5m x 2.5m was recommended.
  • Studies on pruning for rejuvenation of overcrowded orchards in mango revealed that the treatment involving thinning up to crowded branches with the centre open and a standard dose of paclobutrazol was effective in rejuvenating overcrowded orchards to provide more yield and good quality fruits.
Heading back Mango
  • Another trial for pruning of bearing trees planted at normal distance (square and paired planting systems) revealed that the treatment involving thinning of crowded branchlets and centre opening coupled with a standard dose of paclobutrazol after harvest of fruits was effective at Mohanpur (75.40 kg/tree as against 60.50 kg/tree in control for Himasagar) and Periyakulam (340.15 kg/tree as against 128.56 kg/tree in control for Neelum). However, at Rewa for Langra (37.31kg/tree), verity of mango above treatment without paclobutrazol application was found better.
  • A pruning trial for high density planting in mango revealed that at Pantnagar and Vengurle, pruning immediately after fruit harvest (June to July) with 10 cm heading back of terminal shoots recorded higher yield. However, at Periyakulam, Sangareddy and Rewa, pruning during the rest period before the emergence of new growth with 20 cm heading back of terminal shoots (50 cm 20 cm heading back of terminal shoots at Mohanpur) was ideal for yield. Further at these centres, annual treatment of pruning was effective at Mohanpur, Pantnagar, Periyakulam and Sangareddy, whereas biennial pruning was effective for Rewa and Vengurle. The fruit yield at Pantnagar, Sangareddy, Vengurle and Rewa was 8.76 kg, 34.53 kg, 47.35 kg and 77.58 kg/tree respectively.

Fertilizer dosage recommendation

  • Nutrient removal pattern by one ton of fresh fruits of Alphonso variety at Vengurle was worked out. The pattern clearly suggests that mango is a heavy feeder of potassium and nitrogen. The order of nutrient removal is K>N>Ca>Mg>S.
Nutrient N P K Ca Mg S Fe Mn Zn Cu
Nutrient removal

(kg/t fresh fruit)

6.27 0.66 9.88 2.62 2 1.71 0.27 0.29 0.02 0.02
  • The suitable period of pruning was found to be May and October at Vengurle (Konkan region). The method of pruning included cutting of central branch at 15 feet height from ground level and overlapping branches. Application of Bordeaux paste on cut ends of branches was suggested as a precautionary measure.
  • For coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, pruning of branches on alternate limbs up to 50 cm after harvest and application of paclobutrazol (10 g a.i. per tree) in old and unproductive mango trees were suggested by Sangareddy centre. For Telangana and Rayalaseema region, pruning by thinning of crowded branches and centre opening of the canopy after harvesting was recommended.

Pre-harvest sprays for improving yield and quality

Improvement of fruit grade

  • Application of KH2PO4 @ 1% + KNO3 @ 1% before bud break was found effective for improving yield and fruit set in mango at majority of the centres.
  • For improvement of fruit grade, spraying of boric acid (0.02 %) + sorbitol (2%) at the start of flowering was advised at Pantanagar. However, at Paria and Periyakulam, the spray of these chemicals at 50% flowering stage is recommended (higher pollen viability of 84.3%).
  • Further, for regular bearing of Alphonso variety of mango, soil application of paclobutrazol (0.75 ml per meter of canopy diameter) just inside the fertilizer ring in 30 holes at 10 to 15 cm depth during mid-July to mid-August with sufficient moisture and weed free conditions was recommended for Vengurle region.
  • Soil application of paclobutrazol (3 ml per m canopy diameter) during the month of September (120 days before bud break) was recommended as bioregulator for flowering by ICAR-AICRP centre at Sangareddy.

Control of fruit drop

  • For control of fruit drop in mango, the ICAR-AICRP centre at Vengurle suggested measures like planting other varieties like Kesar, Ratna, Pairy, etc as pollinators in about 10% area, effective control of mango hoppers and powdery mildew, spraying of 20 ppm NAA two times, spraying of 50 to 100 ppm GA at mustard stage of fruits and spraying of 2% urea (first spray at pea stage and second spray at 15 days after first spray).
  • Irrigation level of 150 to 200 l water per tree at an interval of 15-20 days from pea stage to one month prior to harvest was also recommended.

8 Papaya

Planting method and spacing

  • Seed treatment with carbendazim (2 g/kg of seeds) timely planting in May-June and transplanting in September- October and spacing of 1.8×1.8 m are the management practices developed for successful cultivation of papaya at Ranchi, Coimbatore and Bengaluru centres.

Fertilizer dosage and INM

  • Results from Coimbatore and Pusa centres indicated, application of 100% of RDF along with VAM (50 g/plant) + PSB (25 g/plant) + Azospirillum (50 g/plant) + Trichoderma harzianum (50 g/plant) increased the yield for CO-7 at Coimbatore and for Pusa Dwarf at Pusa.
  • In papaya, balanced application of nutrients viz., 100 % of N, P2O5 and K2O in three splits i.e, 50:50:25 % from transplanting to flower emergence, 25:25:25 % from flowering to first harvest and 25:25:50 % from first harvest to end of first cropping period is recommended for obtaining higher yield with high BC ratio. The technology has been recommended for Bihar and Jharkhand regions wherein existing recommendation is for two spits.
  • Foliar application of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + H3BO3 (0.1%) during 4th and 8th month after planting was found effective in significantly increasing the fruit number (80.63/tree) and fruit weight (2.22 kg/fruit) over control in CO5 papaya, while in CO.8, spray schedule of aforesaid micronutrients once two months has improved the fruit and latex yield under Coimbatore conditions

Techniques for improving fertilizer use efficiency

  • Application of 75 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF-150g each of N and K2O per plant per year) at Coimbatore for CO.2 recorded higher yield (33.6 fruits/tree with 1.09 kg of mean fruit weight) and resulted in nutrient saving to the tune of 25%. Accordingly, the drip fertigation schedule for papaya was worked out by Coimbatore centre. Daily application of 10 -15 l of water through drip and weekly application of 13.5g urea and 10.5g muriate of potash are recommended, besides soil application of super phosphate (300 g/plant) at bimonthly interval.

Techniques for improving water use efficiency

  • Irrigation schedule for papaya was developed by Pusa centre. The quantity of irrigation water was estimated at 2-4 l/plant/day during first 5months after planting (October-February) and 8-15 l/plant/day during 6 to 9 months (March-June). About 6-12 l/plant/day of irrigation water is required during 10 to 14 months after planting in case of absence of rainfall during July-November. For 15 to 18-month-old plants i.e., during December-March, 5-6 l/plant/day of water needed to be applied.

9 Sapota

High density planting

  • A spacing of 5 x 5 m for sapota cv. Kalipatti for high density planting was found optimum up to 13 years at Gandevi and Kovvur (Doubled the yield). However, at Periyakulam and Arabhavi plant spacing of 8 x 4m was productive upto 12 years (up to 60% additional yield over 10mX10m spacin). Further thinning of trees in the later stages has been recommended for sustaining the productivity.

Fertilizer dosage and ratios

  • Studies on the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on sapota showed that the combination of vermicompost (10kg) + 350:50:450 g N:P2O5:K2O, respectively, per tree per year at Arabhavi and Palghar; 10 kg vermicompost + 500:50:450 g N:P2O5:K2O, respectively, per tree at Kovvur; and 10 kg vermicompost + 750:300:400 g N:P2O5:K2O, respectively, per tree at Periyakulam was effective in increasing the yield attributes of sapota at Arabhavi (3,909 fruits/plant and fruit yield of 258 kg/tree, 25.8 t/ha), Palghar (1,595 fruits/tree and fruit yield of 124.71 kg/tree), Kovvur (2,996 fruits/tree and fruits yield of 210.10 kg/tree, 21.10 t/ha) and Periyakulam (1,865 fruits per tree, 82.0 g fruit weight and yield of 182 kg/tree).
  • The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) was worked out based on the survey of different orchards. At Arabhavi, nutrient diagnosis using DRIS indices indicated that yield levels could be increased with the application of Calcium and Magnesium to the soil. At Kovvur, P was recorded as the most yield-limiting nutrient in 31.58 % of the orchards, followed by Mg (18.42 %). Among micronutrients Cu and Zn recorded as limiting factors, hence yield levels could be increased with the application of Phosphorous, Nitrogen, Magnesium among macronutrients and Copper and Zinc among micro nutrients as soil application.

Drip fertigation

  • Fertigation with 100% RDF through drip at 100% ER gave higher yields (275.30 kg/tree at Arabhavi, 42.0 kg/tree at Periyakulam) and better quality fruits at the Arabhavi and Periyakulam centres. However, at Kovvur, application of 75% RDF through drip at 100% ER recorded a higher yield (51.07 kg/plant).

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