1 Insect pest Management
- The package developed to reduce the infestation level of nematodes at different centres included paring and pralinage of corms with carbofuran (40 g per sucker). Additionally, soil application of neem cake @ 500 g/plant during planting is has been recommended for the effective management of nematodes in banana.
- In high-density system, soil application of carbofuran (120 g/clump) were recommended by Coimbatore centre to reduce the nematode population.
- For management of nematodes in banana orchards, growing of Crotalaria juncea (sunhemp) for 45 days before planting and incorporation in the soil has been advocated by all the centres. Alternatively, application of Pseudomonas fluorescens (12.5 g/m2) + Paecilomyces lilacinus (12.5 g/m) at Arabhavi and Pasteuria penetrans (10 g/plant) or Paecilomyces lilacinus (10 g/plant) at Coimbatore was also recommended.
- Growing of tolerant cultivar Ney Poovan (Yalakkibale) was also suggested for control of burrowing nematode.
Management of red rust thrips
- The Jalgaon centre worked on management of red rust thrips. The control measures consisted of chemical methods like spraying of acephate (0.1125%) at flag leaf stage and at flowering and spraying of acetamiprid (0.0025%) first at flag leaf stage or shooting stage and second spray at seven days after first spray. Alternatively, biological method of control with NSKE (5%) or Phule Buggicide – Verticillium lecanii (2 x 108 cfu/ml) 3g/l was also worked out.
- Recent results also indicated that, bud injection of azadirachtin (1%) (5ml/l water) @ 2 ml/bud or imidacloprid 17.8 SL (0.3 ml/ 500 ml water) @ 1 ml solution/bud at the emergence of banana flower was superior method to prevent the damage of rust thrips and improve fruit appearance over conventional spraying during fruiting stage. No residue of imidacloprid 17.8 SL detected in banana fruit at harvest after bud injection.
|Scarring beetle damage in banana|
Banana stem weevil/borer
- Stem injection of triazophos (43%) at 2 and 4 feet above the ground, without touching the centre core was recommended as suitable control measure for banana stem weevil by ICAR-AICRP centre at Bhubaneswar. However, at Coimbatore acephate (0.1125 % was effective.
- Under Kerala conditions, application of chlorpyriphos (0.03%) or carbaryl (0.2%) and use of pseudostem traps were advocated by Kannara centre.
- Spraying of fenvalerate (0.01%) or quinolphos (0.05%) or acephate (0.05%) or thiodicarb 75WP (0.075%) or Bacillus thuringenesis (0.1%) or carbaryl 50WP (0.15%) or neem oil (0.5%) was advised for control of leaf eating caterpillar at Akola.
- Spraying of Bacillus thuringinesis (0.1%) was suggested for control of lemon butterfly in citrus growing locations at Akola, Ludhiana, Periyakulam and Tirupati. Fish oil rosin soap (5g/l) and Beauveria bassiana @ 4 x 106 cfu/ml (0.1%) at the appearance of the larvae on leaves were also found effective for the management of lemon butterfly.
- For leaf miner control in acid lime at Akola, spraying of malathion (0.07%) or neem oil (1%) at the time of initiation of the pest incidence was recommended.
- For management of Citrus leaf miner at Ludhiana, spraying of thiodicarb (0.75%) or thiamethoxam (0.05%) followed by neem seed powder (1%) or imidacloprid (0.005%) or neem oil (1%) or fenvalerate followed or fish oil rosin soap (5 g/l) was advised.
- For effective control of citrus leaf miner in acid lime at Rahuri, two sprays of imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.005 percent (2.5 ml/10 l) at an interval of 15 days or thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075 per cent (10 g/10 litre of water) or acephate 75 SP @ 0.1125 per cent (15 g/10 l) or fenvalerate 20 EC @ 0.005 per cent (2.5 ml/10 l) were recommended.
- At Tirupati, the control of leaf minor was achieved with spraying of neem formulation 10000 ppm (5ml per l) followed by thiamethoxam (0.025%) or spinosad (0.002%) at 7 days’ interval.
Fruit sucking moth
|Citrus fruit sucking moth|
Citrus blackfly and whitefly
- For the effective control of Citrus black fly in sweet orange, two sprays at an interval of 15 days with acephate 75 SP 0.11 % (15 g/10 l) or triazophos 40 EC 0.08 % (20 ml/10 l) was recommended at Rahuri.
- For the management of nymph population, two releases of 4 to 6 eggs of Mallada boninensis /shoot during hasta bahar has been recommended for Nagpur mandarin at Akola. Alternatively, azadirachtin (1500 ppm) at 50% hatching of eggs and second spray after 15 days thereafter is ideal in Nagpur mandarin at Akola.
- For Kinnow mandarin growers, spray imidacloprid (0.25 ml/l) followed by pongamia oil (1%) or thiamethoxam (0.1 g/l) or acetamiprid (0.1 g/l) followed by neem oil (1%) or profenphos (2 ml/l) or triazophos (0.05%) or acephate (0.1125%) followed by acephate (0.1125%) or pongamia soap (10 g/l) effective for management of citrus blackfly and whitefly. Repeat the spray after 15 days, if required.
Citrus bark eating caterpillar
- Spot application of DDVP 76 EC @ 0.05% (7 ml/l) in the bore and closing it with mud or application of petrol swab in larval holes was recommended during October-November for effective checking of bark eating caterpillar in Nagpur mandarin at Akola.
- The control measures developed for citrus psylla at Ludhiana included spraying of acetamiprid (0.1 g/l) followed by neem oil (1%) or imidacloprid (0.25 ml/l) followed by pongamia oil (1%) or thiamethoxam (0.1 g/l) or profenphos (2 ml/l) or triazophos (0.05%) or acephate (0.1125%) followed by neem oil (1%).
- However, at Rahuri, two sprays (first spray at the initiation of pest infestation and second 15 days thereafter) of abamectin 1.9 EC (4 ml per10 l) were recommended for sweet orange, which was also effective against mites (Eutetranychus orientalis). Alternatively, foliar application of novaluron 10EC (0.005%) @ 0.5 ml/l or azadirachtin (1%) @ 4 ml/l or petroleum oil spray (5 ml/l) twice at 15 days’ interval coinciding with peak activity of the pest was recommended against citrus psylla up to 14 days in sweet orange (Mosambi at Rahuri and Sathgudi at Tirupati).
- Foliar application of abamectin 1.9 EC (0.0007%) or novaluron 10 EC (0.005%) twice at 15 days’ interval during flushing period, with the appearance of nymphs on twigs was also advocated for Nagpur mandarin and Kinnow mandarin in Maharashtra and Punjab respectively.
- Spraying of imidacloprid (0.25 ml/ l) followed by pongamia oil (1 %) or thiamethoxam (0.1 g l-1) or acetamiprid (0.1 g) followed by neem oil (1%) or profenphos (2 ml/l) or triazophos (0.05%) or acephate (0.1125%) followed by neem oil (1%) was advised for management of Citrus aphids.
- For reduction in the usage of pesticides, spraying of neem formulation 10000 ppm (5ml l-1) followed by fipronil (0.01%) or thiamethoxam (0.025%) two times at 7 days’ interval was recommended on fruits for control of aphids and thrips at button stage at Tirupati.
- Spraying of carbaryl (0.1%) or chlorpyriphos (0.05%) or pongamia oil (1%) was advised for management of mealy bugs in citrus at Ludhiana. Further, release of Cryptolaemus beetles @ 20 beetles per tree was effective biocontrol measure for mealy bugs in citrus. While at Rahuri, two sprays at an interval of 15 days with chlorpyriphos (0.05%) were recommended in sweet orange.
- For management of scale insect in citrus at Ludhiana, spraying of carbaryl (0.1%) or chlorpyriphos (0.05%) or pongamia oil (1%) was found effective. Biocontrol measure like release of Cryptolaemus beetles @ 20 beetles per tree was also effective.
- For effective control of mites in citrus, two sprays of ethion 50 EC (0.05%) or propargite 57 EC @ 0.057% or neem oil (5%) first at initiation of the pest infestation and second spray 15 to 20 days thereafter, were recommended by Ludhiana and Tirupati centres. For management of the rust mites in citrus, two sprays with the above chemicals at marble stage and 20 days later are recommended for Tirupati, Akola, Ludhiana, Nagpur and Rahuri centres.
- For the effective control of leaf folder (Psorostica zizyphii) in acid lime, two sprays (first at the time of initiation of infestation and second after 15 days) acephate 75 SP @ 0.1125 % (15 g) or imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.005% (2.5 ml) or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.0025% (1.0g) per 10 litres of water was recommended by ICAR-AICRP centre at Rahuri.
- Soil application of neem cake (1.0 kg/tree) or cartap hydrochloride (4 G) twice at 6-month interval with first application at ‘Bahar’ and second thereafter were recommended for the effective management of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) infesting sweet orange by Rahuri centre. However, at Tirupati, application of neem cake or castor cake or pongamia cake @ 20 kg per tree once in 6 months was effective.
- For the management of thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis and Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus in grape, two sprays of spinosad 45% SC @ 0.3 ml/l or fipronil 5 % SC @ 1 ml/l or thiamethoxam 25 % WG @ 0.25 g/l at an interval of 10 days starting from flowering stage is found to be effective.
- Two sprays of buprofezin 25 SC @ 1.25 ml/l at an interval of 10 days is recommended for the management of mealy bug, after appearance of crawler stage in grape. In addition, two sprays of Verticilium lecani @ 5g/l at the appearance of crawler stage is also recommended. Two releases of predatory beetles (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) 1500/ha two times at an interval of 21 days has also been very effective and has been the success story
- Destruction of pruned debris in April and October, removal of loose bark and swabbing of vine stem with COC (10g) + carbaryl (6g) + DDVP (3.0 ml) + sticker and mixing of malathion dust (5%) @ 20g per vine after pruning were also found effective measures.
- Soil drenching with imidacloprid 70 WG @ 0.45 g/l/ vine twice at 20 and 40 days after forward pruning is recommended against thrips, jassids and mealy bug in grapes at Rahuri and Rajendranagar.
- Stem injection of dichlorvos 76 % EC @ 80 ml per live hole during January-February is recommended for management of stem borer, in grape in Telangana state
- The control of fruit fly use of methyl eugenol wooden block trap (5 x 5 x 1cm.) in plastic bottle soaked in solution in the ratio of 6:4:1 (alcohol: methyl eugenol: DDVP) @ 10 traps/ha from June to September is recommended for Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttarakand and Bihar. Replace the lure at 2 months’ interval.
- The control of stem borer was achieved by placing cotton swab saturated with insecticide like Quinalphos or Dichlorovos after cleaning the hole by sharp object at Rewa.
- Application of B. thuringenesis (Kurstaki) @ 2g/l or B. thuringenesis followed by azadirachtin (2ml/l) was recommended to control fruit borer in litchi in Mohanpur and Pantnagar regions.
Egg and larvae of litchi fruit borer
Leaf curl mite
- Pruning and burning of all infested leaves and shoots just after harvesting of fruits in the month of June and spraying of dicofol (3 ml/l) twice at flush emergence in September-October at an interval of seven days for the management of litchi mite in Bihar and Uttrakhand.
- Studies on crop loss assessment due to mango hopper revealed that an average of 25.97%–66.08% yield loss was reported due to this pest.
Prediction model for mango hopper and thrips
- The population of mango hopper and thrips during flowering and fruit setting period in general and pea cum marble sized fruit stage of the crop needs to be monitored. If population was found high (economic threshold level of 5 hoppers per panicle and 10 per cent damage due to thrips) due to high humidity, measures like adoption of need based plant protection schedule, application of imidacloprid (0.005%) 2.8 ml or thiamethoxam (0.0008%) are to be adopted to avoid crop loss due to these pests in Paria region.
- The use of traps by hanging of wooden block (5x5x1 cm) in lid open plastic bottle soaked in solution (alcohol: Methyl Eugenol: DDVP in the ratio of 6:4:1) was effective. About 10 traps per ha are required and the traps need to be replaced at bi-monthly interval.
- The prevalence of low sunshine and high humidity, rainfall and wind velocity during fruiting and late harvest period was found to influence the abundance of high population of fruit fly at Paria. Monitoring of fruit fly population in mango orchards during April to July in general and second fortnight of June to second fortnight of July is essential. If fruit fly damage persists above threshold level (10 per cent fruit damage), farmers are advised to adopt recommended measures like installation of methyl eugenol or wooden plywood trap @ 10 per ha followed by collection and disposal of fallen fruits during April to July.
- For effective control of aphids, spraying of chlorphyriphos (2.5 ml/l) or acephate (1.5 ml/l) at 15 days interval during October – November and February – March was recommended by Pusa centre.
- The work done on nematodes in papaya at Coimbatore centre resulted in several effective control measures, which are as follows. At nursery stage, application of neem cake @ 100g per bag was recommended. Application of carbofuran (1g/plant) or sebufos (1g/plant) or phenamiphos 2(1g/plant) was found to reduce reniform nematode infestation. Application of Paecilomyces lilacinus (10 g/plant) along with either neem cake (250 g/plant) or FYM (500 g/plant) was also suggested. In addition, combined application of neem cake (250 g/plant), carbofuran (1g/plant) and P. fluorescens (4 g/plant) was suggested as effective measure.
Management of bud borer
Bud damage in sapota due to chiku moth (Nephopteryx eugraphella) (a, b) & bud borer (Anarsia achrasella) (c, d)
Management of seed borer
- For the control of seed borer spray of profenofos 50 EC (0.075%) /novaluron (0.005%%) has been recommended by Gandevi and Palghar centres respectively.
2 Disease Management
Eumusae (Sigatoka) leaf spot
|Eumusae (Sigatoka) leaf spot of banana|
- At Kannara, the dipping of suckers in carbendazim (0.1-0.2%), drenching with carbendazim (0.05%) and application of 1kg lime per pit were suggested to manage wilt in Rasthali banana.
- Alternate spray of COC (0.3%) + streptocyclin (100ppm) and neem seed kernel extract (5%) starting from second fortnight of June up to second fortnight of October at 30 days’ interval was suggested by centres at Ludhiana and Periyakulam.
Canker incidence in Citrus
Fungal fruit drop
- For reduction of Ambi bahar fungal fruit drop, three sprays of COC (0.3%) or carbendazim (0.1%) at monthly interval starting from July was advised for Nagpur mandarin at Akola.s
Gummosis/Phytophthora root rot
- Application of metalaxyl MZ (50 g l-1) or aliette (50 g l-1) paste on stem at initiation of disease and second after 30 days from initiation of the disease was recommended for effective management of gummosis in Nagpur mandarin at Akola.
- Application of Bordeaux paste (1:1:10) on trunk two times (pre-and post monsoon) along with soil application of Trichoderma harzianum + Trichoderma viride+ Pseudomonas fluorescens (100 g tree-1) followed by Fosetyl-Al (0.2%) spray was advocated by Akola centre for Nagpur mandarin.
Dry root rot
- At Tirupati, treatment with mancozeb (0.25%) drenching followed by incorporation of neem cake (2 kg/tree) in the tree basins was found effective in managing dry root rot. Alternatively, treatment with mancozeb (0.25%) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (100g/tree) was also advocated.
- Downy mildew was managed successfully with spraying of Bordeaux mixture (1%) immediately after October pruning and alternate spray of metalaxyl + mancozeb (0.2%) and alliete (0.2%) + mancozeb (0.2%) at an interval of 10 days upto 70 days.
- For the management of downy mildew disease in grape, integrated use of fenamidone (4.44%) + fosetyl Al 71 WDG or famoxadone (16.6%) + cymoxanil (22.1%) SC and azoxystrobin 23 SC (0.5 ml/l) were found effective.
- Spraying of hexaconazol (0.1%) at 70 days after winter pruning followed by 2 sprays of hexaconazol (0.5%) + potassium bicarbonate (0.5%) at 10 days’ interval and tricure (5 ml l-1) on 20 days prior to harvest was found effective against powdery mildew.
- The spray schedule for the management of powdery mildew in grape during last 105 days before harvest without terminal residues is as follows.
|At 40 days||Fusilazole 40 EC (0. 125ml/l)|
|At 60 days||Penconazole 10 EC (0.5ml/l) + potassium bicarbonate (5g/l)|
|At 70 days||Triademefon 25 WP (1g/l)|
|At 80 days||Hexaconazole 5 EC (1ml/l) + potassium bicarbonate (5g/l)|
|At 90 days||Myclobutanil 10 WP (0.4g/l)|
|At 105 & 120 days||Azoxystrobin 23 SC (0.5ml/l) or pyraclostrobin 20% WG (0.5 g/l)|
- Spraying of hexaconazole (0.1%) and tridemorph (0.1%) among systemic fungicide and mancozeb (0.2%) among non-systemic was found best to manage rust disease in grapes by the ICAR-AICRP centre at Rajendranagar.
- Application of Trichoderma viride along with FYM during planting and at least once in the subsequent year preferably during the onset of monsoon was advocated for suppression of guava wilt at Lucknow and Mohanpur.
- Prophylactic spraying of triadimefon/carbendazim (0.1%) in second or third week of February was advocated for management of powdery mildew of mango at Mohanpur.
- Spraying of wettable sulphur (3 g l-1) twice at an interval of 15 days during flowering was suggested for control of powdery mildew by ICAR-AICRP centre at Sangareddy.
Blossom blight and foliar anthracnose
- Two sprays of carbendazim (12%) + mancozeb (63%) @0.2% (2g/l) starting at flowering stage at an interval of 10 days are effective against blossom blight of mango.
- Three alternate sprays of carbendazim 50WP (0.1%), propineb 70WP (0.2%) and thiophanate- methyl 80WP (0.1%) at an interval of 10 days given at young vegetative flush stage was effective for the management of mango anthracnose.
Plant protection schedule developed by Vengurle centre for mango blossom blight
|Period of spray||Recommended insecticide||Quantity of insecticide per10 l||Remark|
|First spray at Vegetative Flush stage||Cypermethrin 25%
|Spraying on whole tree to control the hopper population|
|Second spray at bud burst Stage||
|Mixing of 20 g sulphur (80%) or 10 g carbendazim (50%) or 5 ml hexaconazole (5%) or 10 g thiophenate methyl (70%) or 20g propineb (70%) in 10 l solution for control of powdery mildew and anthracnose|
|Third spray 15 days after 2nd Spray||Imidachloprid 17.8%
|Fourth spray 15 days after 3rd Spray||Thiamethoxam 25%||1 g|
|Fifth spray 15 days after 4 th Spray||Fenthoate 50%
|Mixing of 5ml hexaconazole (5%) or 10 g carbendazim (50%) or 20 g Sulphur (80%) in 10 l solution during 3rd, 4th and 5th spray for control of powdery mildew|
|Sixth spray if necessary||Use any insecticide from above which is not used for spraying||Spray, if necessary|
Papaya ring spot virus
|Papaya ring spot virus|
Papaya root rot
- At Coimbatore, soil drenching with Bordeaux mixture (1%) or metalaxyl (0.2%) 2 or 4 times at fortnightly intervals was recommended for control of papaya root rot.
Use of bio agents in plant protection
- For control of leaf spot disease, spraying of thiophanate methyl (0.1%)/ carbendazim (0.1%) was effective at all the centres