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AICRP on Agroforestry

Salient Research Achievements

The project developed agroforestry systems, package of practices and technologies for different regions of the country. The important agroforestry practices identified for different regions are (1) Grewia optiva, Ulmus wallichiana, Morus alba, Salix, Robina pseudoacacia, Sapindus mukorossi, Toona ciliata and Poplar in Western Himalayan region; Acacia auriculiformis, Alnus nepalensis, Bamboos, Parasarianthes falcataria and Gmelina arborea for Eastern Himalayan region; (2) Populus, Eucalyptus, Mango and Dalbergia sisoo in Indo-gangetic region; (3) Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia tortilis, A. nilotica, Ailanthus excelsa, Prosopis cineraria, Leucaena leucocephala and Azadirachta indica for arid and semi-arid regions; (4) Acacia nilotica, Prosopis cineraria and Zizyphus in western India: (5) Tectona grandis, Tamarindus indica, Melia dubia, Heveabra silensis in southern region; and (6) Albizia spp., Gmelina arborea, Gliricidia, Acacia auriculiformis for humid and sub humid regions; (7) Artocarpus, Azadirachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Grevillea robusta and bamboos in coastal and island region. The zone wise achievements are mentioned below:


  • An arboretum of different multiple purpose tree species has been established by Srinagar centre at Benhama Ganderbal with 24 different multipurpose tree species planted for ex situ conservation.
  • Centre evaluating germplasm of Salix, Populus deltoides, Ulmus and Prunus armeniacaThe apricot based agroforestry system revealed a good potential for the stake holders after the completion of five growing seasons. The apricot trees recorded the maximum plant height (3.33 m), collar diameter (65.84mm), Number of branches (18.33) and fuelwood yield 0.40 Kg/ tree in combination with Orchard grass followed by Tall fescue with a height of 2.96 m, collar diameter of 61.58 mm with Lucerne at 2 x 3 m tree spacing.  Among the four fodder species viz. Timothy, Orchard grass, Lucerne, Tall fescue and natural grasses (control) sown in interspaces; Orchard grass performed better with 22.80 t /ha green fodder yield followed by Tall fescue (14.50 t/ha).
  • Centre raised five thousand seedlings of MPTS and fruit trees for distribution among farmers/tribals of Kangan (Ganderbal district) and Stakna (Leh district).


  • The Jammu centre-initiated Poplar based agroforestry system in the Sub-tropics of Jammu and Kashmir to study the performance of Rabi (Potato, Spinach, Cabbage) and Kharif (tomato, Brinjal, Okra) vegetables under Poplar based agroforestry system in the sub
  • tropics of Jammu.
  • Growth and productivity of Melia composita planted at a spacing of 6×4 m after two and a half years of planting showed impressive growth performance with an average height of 8 m.
  • Village Nanetar and Palai of Block Sumb in the District Samba adopted for carrying out TSP activities by the Jammu centre. Seed treatment drum and Knapsack sprayers were distributed in both Nanetar and Palai villages to be used by the people of the respective villages on sharing basis. Encouraging the farmers for treating seeds before sowing. Seed treatment drum uses less time and saving labour cost. Helps to boost up farm income by improving productivity. A training programme on, “Scientific benefits of Tree crop combinations” was conducted with an objective to improve the knowledge of TSP beneficiaries about scientific benefits of Tree crop combinations. It was also aimed at providing options for diversification of existing farming systems for increased productivity by agroforestry adoption.


  • Eleven clone of Morus alba were analysed for growth and developmental traits by Solan centre. The study revealed that after 18 years of plantation different clones displayed their superiority for various traits. The collar diameter growth was maximum in the clone 7,  whereas the plant height growth was maximum in the clone no 5. Maximum leaf (12.03 t ha-1 ) was displayed by clone no.5. Whereas, total biomass (leaf+ branch wood biomass)(45.99 t ha-1 ) was displayed by the clone no. 6, which was closely followed by clone no.5.
  • In Grewia optiva based system, irrespective of lopping intensity maximum plant height (38.74 cm), number of leaves (2.78) of Allium cepa (onion) was found in the plant supplied  with the Farmyard manure (FYM) on N equivalent ratio of recommended doses of  fertilizers. The leaf length (35.16 cm) and the yield (27.90g) was maximum in the plants treated with vermicompost @ on N equivalent ratio of recommended doses of fertilizers. However, maximum bulb weight (27.90 g) in the plots treated with Jeevamrut. The effect of lopping intensity on plant height (cm) and number of onion leaves were non-significant. Leaf length (34.48 cm) was maximum at 75 % lopping intensity. Weight per bulb (28.05 g) and total yield (10.80 t ha-1 ) were maximum at 50 % lopping intensity. An experiment was carried out to study the effect of lopping intensities- 75, 50, 25 % and no lopping of Morus alba (M-5 clone) trees, and organic manures- vermicompost, FYM, Jeevamrut and no manure on the growth and yield behavior of maize (Zea maize) during 2018-19. It was found that growth- plant height, number of seeds per cob, dry matter production per plant, 100 grain weight per plant-1 , stover yield per plant & ha-1 enhanced significantly with the increase in lopping intensity. However, maximum returns (Rs. 70,750) were calculated in the treatment involving lopping at 50 % intensity and application of FYM.  Under TSP about 2000 apple plants of the different cultivars were planted in the Sangla tehsil of Kinaur district of Himachal Pradesh.


  • Palampur centre evaluated 25 germplasm sources of Toona ciliate, out of these, best 8 superior seed sources have been under field evaluation. Seed sources from Mandi i.e., HPV(b)71 is coming out to be best performing in the field followed by HPV(b) 48 and HPI(c)22 seed source of Solan in terms of overall height gained, diameter and canopy spread. In case of Sapindus mukorossi, out of best performing 8 seed sources under field evaluation, AS11 from Dhraman, Sihunta Distt. Chamba was found to be the best performing in terms of growth parameters and had 23.8% and 35.29% higher height and diameter respectively than AS23 a local germplasm source from Rajpur, whereas 50.84% higher spread was attained by another seed source from Chamba- Mangla than the local AS23 seed source.
  • Morus based silvi-pastoral system has been recommended for reclamation of degraded grass lands and increasing their productivity potential in mid hills of Himachal Himalayas. Introduction of Morus alba (3x3m) along with the improved grasses i.e. Setaria and Napier (50×50 cm) recorded 26 and 23 percent respectively more total green fodder yield from the degraded land as compared to their production without tree component. Quality green fodder was obtained from tree (through pollarding at a height of 5´) and grass components, three times in a year in the months of May, July and September. Productivity of the system was enhanced to the tune of 2.83 and 3.33 times respectively as compared to the natural grass treatment. The overall net income per hectare per year of degraded grassland was raised from Rs. 5400/- to Rs. 14130/ha/ year in the initial years.
  • D&D exercise conducted by the centre in Nurpur-Valley sub regions revealed that Agri
  • horti-silviculture and Horti-agri-silviculture system were the most prevalent agroforestry systems. Fodder, timber & fuelwood trees are mainly concentrated on boundary of the agricultural fields. Fruit trees are either on the bunds or in the centre of the fields. When all the 21 species of trees were classified based on their uses, it was seen that horticulture tree species had the highest share (52%) followed by fodder (22%), timber (13%) and fuelwood (8%) tree species.
  • About 7 ha tribal farmers’ land has been developed in district Kangra under Silvipasture and Hortipasture agroforestry systems through peoples’ participation approach. Quality planting material of Morus, Grewia, Poplar, Eucalyptus, lemon and Galgal along with recommended fast growing grasses like Setaria were also distributed to the beneficiaries for plantation in the demonstration trials. About 0.5 ha has been adopted in village Sichling in district Lahual and Spiti under TSP programme. Three agroforestry trainings on potential and suitable agroforestry systems were imparted to 150 farmers in Mandi, Bilaspur and Simla districts of the state under Sub-Mission on Agroforestry by the centre.


  • Ninety-five saplings of Gmelina arborea collected from 19 seed sources were planted at the centre. Saplings were collected from six different sites viz. 4 from Goalpara, 3 from Dudhnoi, 3 from Damara, 4 from Boko, 2 from Byrnihat and 3 from Silchar. Seed source from Byrnihat and Silchar registered maximum tree height of Gmelina arborea in 17yrs old plantation. AAU 18 (Silchar) recorded the highest timber volume of 1.503 m3/tree, biomass of 1108.83 Mg/ha and above ground C stock of 554.41 Mg/ha.
  • In Tree-crop interaction studies in agri-silvicultural system integrating Acacia mangium with field crops under rainfed condition, the yield of sesamum and niger can be grown up to 4th year and afterwards fodder crops, viz. Hybrid napier and setaria can be planted successfully. The maximum fodder yield of Hybrid napier (46.30 t/ha) was obtained in sole fodder followed by tree spaced at 5 m x 6 m (42.90 t/ha), 5 m x 5 m (38.87 t/ha) and 5 m x 4 m (36.60 t/ha), respectively.
  • In Jackfruit based system, sesamum in kharif and toria in rabi can be grown successfully in the interspaces of Jackfruit plantation at spacing of 8 m x 8 m up to 8 years, after that hybrid napier can be grown successfully. There was an increase of organic matter, available N, available P2O5 and available K2O by 41.49 %, 23.68 %, 27.86 % and 9.56 % respectively over initial status of soil in the intercropped plots in 14 years.
  • In Bambusa tulda based agroforestry system is turmeric can be intercropped successfully up to 4 tears, mean plant height (19.39 m), spread (3.28m), new culm (15.74 no.), total culms (77.60 nos.), canopy diameter (11.60 m), biomass (201.45 Mg/ha) and harvestable yield (1364 no./ha) was observed in Bambusa tulda in 10 years after plantation.
  • The centre provided drip irrigation system covering 800 nos. of Khasi Mandarin grown in 2 ha area on hillock at an altitude of 250-300 feet above the adjacent rice field. At 250 feet above the hillock a concrete tank had been constructed to store 73,000 litre of water from nearby stream, flowing throughout the year. Water from the storage tank had uplifted to a point situated at 300 feet at the hillock with the help of a diesel pump and stored in a 2000 litre syntax tank. Distribution of water to individual tree from this syntax tank was done by drip irrigation system with the help of gravity flow. Due to drip irrigation during winter month from November to March remarkable yield increase (20 %) was observed.


  • A multi-locational trial for evaluation of 15 clones of poplar (5 from Pantnagar, 3 from HAU and 7 from PAU) was established at PAU Ludhiana and RRS Bathinda in January 2014. After 6-year growth, the lowest DBH (16.29 cm) was in case of HAU-S1 and the highest (19.17 cm) in case of PP9-25. The minimum height (16.78 m) was in case of HAU-S1 and the maximum (18.40 m) in FNR-357.
  • A trial was initiated during in 2012 to evaluate the performance of poplar and intercrops under different spacings. The spacing are 5 x 3 m, 7 x 3 m paired at 2.5 m, 8 x 2.5 m and 4 x 3 m. Amongst the six wheat varieties averaged over two tree spacings of 7-year-old poplars, highest wheat yield was observed of HD 3086 (2.70 t/ha) statistically at par with PBW 725 (2.62 t/ha), HD 2967 (2.49 t/ha) and PBW 677 (2.46 t/ha) and significantly better  than Unnat 550. All the varieties performed significantly better under 8 x 2.5 m (2.55 t/ha) spacing than 7 x 3 m spacing paired at 2.5 m (2.25 t/ha). Amongst the six wheat varieties averaged over two tree spacings of 7-year-old poplars, highest wheat yield was observed of HD 3086 (2.70 t/ha) statistically at par with PBW 725 (2.62 t/ha), HD 2967 (2.49 t/ha) and PBW 677 (2.46 t/ha) and significantly better than Unnat 550. All the varieties performed significantly better under 8 x 2.5 m (2.55 t/ha) spacing than 7 x 3 m spacing paired at 2.5 m (2.25 t/ha).
  • The spacing in case of Melia are 5 x 3 m, 7 x 3 m paired at 2.5 m and 7 x 3 m. The yield of all the five wheat varieties was significantly higher under Melia 7 x 3m spacing than 7 x 3m paired at 2.5 m spacing. Amongst the varieties, PBW 725 (2.53 t/ha) recorded significantly higher yield than rest of the tested varieties averaged over both the spacings. Amongst the five cultivars RLC 1 (1.31 t/ha) and RLC 3 (1.24 t/ha) recorded significantly higher yield than Giriraj (0.87 t/ha), GSC-6 (0.86 t/ha) and GSC-7 (0.91 t/ha). The yield of all the mustard varieties was significantly higher under 7x 3 m spacing as compared to 7 x3 m paired at 2.5m.
  • Eucalyptus block plantations were established at two spacing viz. 8 m x 2 m (500 trees/ha) and 8 m x 2 m paired at 2 m (1000trees/ha) during August 2015. After 4 years of planting, DBH and height of eucalyptus plantation were higher in 8 m x 2 m spacing i.e. 16.18 cm and 19.10 m, respectively than in 8 m x 2 m (paired) spacing (13.64 cm and 16.98m, respectively). There was drastic reduction in yield of wheat and oilseed crops cultivated under 4-year-old eucalyptus block plantation.


  • Pantnagar centre maintaining an arboretum with 96 tree species. The centre has collection of 121 clones of Poplar, 24 clones of Eucalyptus and 8 clones of Dalbergia sissoo.
  • In the initial study on Dalbergia sissoo mortality, it was concluded that at the molecular level stress responsive genes are not adequately expressing in declining Dalbergia sissoo trees. Hence due to inhibited stress responsive mechanism, important active secondary metabolites which have a role in the plant defense are not being synthesized. This conclusion is supported with the GC-MS based metabolite profiling of healthy and declining Dalbergia sissoo trees. Bacterial diversity in three Dalbergia sissoo provenances have been analyzed. The soil microbial enzyme activity, metagenomic bacterial diversity and physicochemical properties indicated significant variation in phosphorous solubilizing  bacteria.
  • Use of biochar tried as growing media for clonal eucalyptus propagation. The results indicated higher rooting per cent, root length, shoot length and plant height of mini
  • cutting of Eucalyptus under perlite + pine needle biochar (50:50) followed by rice husk biochar growing media. Poplar hybrids PH-7 and PH-9 showing promising results for height and diameter growth and borer resistance after 3 years testing. Regeneration of Kailashpati (Bertholletia excelsa) was achieved.
  • The centre filed a Patent for “Development of antioxidant enriched whey-based chalta (Dillenia indica L.) beverage and process thereof”.
  • Registration and release of “Pant Poplar-5” clone having higher productivity and tolerance to blight and stem borer as compared to national checks (G-3, G-48 and D-121) Registration and release of PS-52, a shisham line for cultivation.


  • In the varietal evaluation of different intercrops, higher grain yield of paddy obtained in the variety Sarjoo-52 (1.94 and 1.81 t ha-1 ) as compared to other varieties of paddy,whereas, higher grain yield of mustard was achieved with mustard variety NDR-8501 (1.25and 1.13 t ha-1 ) as compared to Kranti and Varuna under normal recommended dose of fertilizer 120:60:60 NPK kg ha-1 under Dalbergia sissoo and C. equisetifolia based agri
  • silviculture system with paddy-mustard sequence. Plantation of Guava with Casuarina equisetifolia & Aonla with Dalbergia sissoo (Ten years old) based agri-silvi-horti system and turmeric (Curcuma longa) as intercrop was taken separately under both D. sissoo and equisetifolia. This technology is being adopted by the farmers over the years. After four years and onward, fruits of Guava and Aonla are being utilized by the farmers in terms of getting both physical health as well as economic status. After five years of plantation of C. equisetifolia and D. sissoo, farmers are utilizing very much wood of both the trees for energy purposes.
  • The leaf litter fall studied under agri-silvicultural systems of 8-year-old clones (6 clones) of deltoides indicated that of the total annual leaf litter fall (104.3-176.22 g m-2 ha-1 ), of which the period from November to January accounted for about 37.9-96.2% leaf fall. Results of leaf litter decomposition show that in the annual cycle there was 81.60-87.0% dry weight loss (G-48 vs L-49) in the leaf litter.


  • Under evaluation of eight Dalbergia genotypes the best performance for growth was observed in genotype PS-38, PS-90, PS-20 and PS-52. Centre is also evaluating 18 poplar clones. The best performance for growth was observed in clones PP 9-OPR-1 and PP 9-J1. In Bombax ceiba based agroforestry system the yield of sesamum and mustard crops and growth performance at the end of fourth year of the plantation were higher under lower density plantations 9400–500 trees ha-1 i.e. 5×2 m – 5×3 m spacing). Sesamum showed only 7.4 % reduction, whereas mustard showed 9.4 % reduction in yield. Increased volume of the trees compensated the loss of crop yield due to shading effect. Centre also estimated the growth, biomass, volume and carbon storage along an age series in Anthocephalus cadamba plantations planted at spacing of 5×4 m. In north-west alluvial plain of Bihar, mean annual increment and periodic annual increment both showed increasing trend up to the age of 10th year and then started to decline. Volume of the trees varied from 4.87 (8-year-pld) to 8.30 cft/tree (13-year-old). They showed the removal of 61.8 – 109.0 Mg ha-1 CO2 from the atmosphere. As calculated, @ Rs. 350/cft, 500 trees/ha may give a total of Rs. 8.52 – 14.53 lakh. The centre recommended Anthocephalus cadamba based agroforestry system for north-west alluvial plain of Bihar at regular spacing 5×4 m and turmeric variety NDH-92 can be successfully sown in the interspaces with the spacing of 30×20 cm even up to the age of eleven year of the plantation.
  •  Three varieties of turmeric viz, Rajendra Sonia, NDH-92 and Rajendra Sonali were grown in the interspaces of Aonla orchard at the age of 12 to 16 years. Under 16-year-old orchard, reduction in yield of turmeric was maximum with Rajendra Sonali (53.7 %) and minimum with NDH-92 (30.5 %) when compared to the yield in open area. The average turmeric yield data of five years (2013-2017) indicated that NDH-92 gave the maximum yield (18.51 Mg ha-1 ). Turmeric yield and light intensity under canopies of Aonla orchard showed highly significant and positive relationship (r2 = 0.802** to 0.864**). The average yield data of four years indicated that the production of fruits (16.01-16.17 Mg ha-1 ) increased by 24 to 26 % due to intercrops. By and large, Aonla+NDH-92 system is the most profitable based on Land Equivalent Ratio (2.06), Aonla Equivalent Weight (27.17 Mg ha- 1 ) and B:C ratio (4.15).


  • In silvipasture systems the maximum green forage yield was obtained from guinea (22.7 t/ha) with A. mangium from three cuttings followed by thin napier with A. mangium (20.3t/ha). The highest net return of Rs 19050/ha/yr and benefit: cost ratio of 2.77 was obtained from guinea grass in association with A. mangium followed by thin napier with  mangium with net return of Rs 16350 /ha/yr and benefit: cost ratio 2.09.
  • In agri-silvihorticultural system during second year of experimentation arhar was the most suitable crop with net returns of Rs. 38,200, Rs 37,000 and Rs 29,880 ha-1year-1 when intercropped with mango + eucalyptus, jackfruit + eucalyptus and cashew + eucalyptus having B:C ratios of 2.53, 2.48 and 2.19 respectively, as against a net return of Rs. 43,960 with B:C 2.76 when grown as sole crop. Cowpea is the next best intercrop which recorded net return of Rs. 11360, Rs 9720 and Rs 7860 ha-1 year-1 with B:C ratios 1.45, 1.39 and 1.31 when intercropped with mango + eucalyptus, jackfruit + eucalyptus and cashew + eucalyptus respectively, as against a net return of Rs 14820 /ha and B:C ratio 1.59 when grown as sole crop.
  • The Gmelina arborea entries of Janisahi, Daspalla at 18 months after planting recorded the highest plant height (2.20 m), basal girth (12.74 cm), crown spread (11.75 m) and branches/plant (149). The lowest plant height of 1.70m, girth 8.69cm, crown spread 6.42 m and 84 no branches/plant was found with Badakameti. The Acacia mangium entries of Villigram, GOP block of Puri district recorded the highest plant height (1.23 m), basal girth (3.68 cm), crown spread (7.80 m) and branches/plant (68.36). It was significantly superior for plant height than all other eight entries.
  • Under TSP programme 122 no of tribal families of nine villages covering four-gram panchayats 0f Daspalla block in Nayagarh district were benefited. Total 50 ha of Mango and Cashew based Agroforestry system demonstrations were done with brinjal, cowpea, okra and blackgram as intercrops. During 3rd year of plantation of fruit trees, brinjal was the most profitable intercrop with net returns of Rs. 57670, Rs 54740 /ha/year with B: C ratios 2.44, and 2.37 when intercropped with mango and cashew respectively, as against a net return of Rs. 67520/ha/yr with B:C ratio 2.69when grown as a sole crop.


  • Evaluated 18 germplasms of Gmelina arborea for genetically superior plants and six superior germplasms identified based on their growth parameters. Twenty-nine germplasms of Acacia auriculiformis evaluated and eight were identified for better growth.
  • Centre developed on-farm demonstration of Gamhar Mango based models with pigeon pea on 2.81 ha (485 Mango grafting and 1135 Gamhar saplings), boundary plantation with Gamhar and Lamboo in 2.81 ha. homestead agroforestry for 18 farm families with Gamhar, Lamboo, Mango, Ber and Guava, 800 farm families each per year during 2014- 2017 with the support in the form of supply of leafy and other vegetable seeds, cattle feeds, and water reservoir PVC tanks.
  • In convergence with the ongoing ATMA project work with Directorate of Agriculture , Government of West Bengal, total thirteen capacity building training have been conducted to motivate the farmers on the importance and need of location specific adoption of agroforestry for higher income with the members of total thirteen Self Help Groups of Jhargram block of Jhargram, Gangajalghati Block of Bankura, Salboni block of Paschim Medinipur and Jhalda I, Jhalda II of Purulia involving local extension wing of agricultural directorate, Government of West Bengal, two philanthropic civic society organizations. Findings of different agroforestry systems like mango + paddy, mango + mustard, mango + pointed gourd, mango + bottle gourd, mango + pumpkin with Dysoxylum binectariferum, as boundary plantation; guava + brinjal, guava + paddy, guava + pointed gourd, guava + sesame, Neolamarckia kadamba + sesame and Mango + paddy followed by mustard with Dysoxylum binectariferum as boundary plantation etc were also shared with concerned extension functionaries.


  • Under evaluation of Gmelina arborea based agri-silvicultural system, the average maximum height of Gmelina arborea was observed in combination with GA+ Arhar (Var. Vishal 120) 130 cm maximum average diameter 35.71 mm in Gmelina arborea + Green gram in the second year 2019. The average maximum height (173.33 cm) and maximum average collar diameter (23.92 mm) of Melia azedarach was observed in Sole Melia azedarach in the second year. Under TSP center distributed and planted Tectona grandis  (1,500), Gmelina arborea (1,500 nos), Melia azedirach (1,000 nos), Mangifera indica (3,000 nos) and Psidium guajava (1,000 nos) in the tribal farmer’s field.
  • In Melia azedarach based system significantly higher green as well as dry fodder yield (860.16q/ha and 266.65q/ha) were recorded in sole hybrid napier followed by sole Bracheria (438.77q/ha and 122.86q/ha), Chara badam (319.10q/ha and 70.10q/ha) and Stylosanthes (194.65q/ha and 36.98q/ha) whereas, in combination with Bakain, green as well as dry fodder yield (633.35q/ha and 209q/ha) was again recorded significantly higher in combination Hybrid napier followed by Bracheria (245.13q/ha and 66.19q/ha), Charabadam (121.35q/ha and 38.05q/ha) and Stylosanthes (111.90 q/ha and 23.49q/ha ).
  •  Tribal Sub Plan (TSP), schemes were implemented in Ranchi and Gumla Districts of Jharkhand state covering 95 families. Activities encompasses providing inputs like quality planting material of both Forests and Horticulture, Compost, Pesticides and Agricultural implements like Kudal, Khurpi, Haswa, sprinkler and seed of agricultural crop were distributed among the farmers.


  • In three years, old poplar planted at 8×3 m attained significantly higher DBH (16.3 cm) than other spacings (7×3, 6×3, 5×3, 4×3 and 3×3 m) and it was about 32 per cent higher than closer spacing (3 × 3 m). Maximum grain yield (4.68 t/ha) was recorded in wheat variety HD-2967 closely followed by WH-711 (4.18 t/ha) in wider spacing (8 ×3m) of poplar. On an average, the reduction in grain yield of different wheat varieties under poplar varied from 0.23 (8×3m) to 20.7 per cent (3×3m) over control (sole wheat). The rate of decrease in straw yield was comparatively lower than grain yield under different spacings of poplar.
  • The maximum green fodder yield of barseem (43.1 t/ha), sorghum (39.8 t/ha) and cowpea (12.1 t/ha) were found under 8×3 m spacing of poplar however, overall reduction of 15.5%, 23.1% and 60.5% in green fodder yield of berseem, sorghum and cowpea, respectively under different spacing was recorded over control.
  • In national trial of eucalypts planted at 8×2 m spacing, the reduction in yield of cowpea, mustard, moong, wheat and barseem was 27.7, 27.8, 22.8, 17.3 and 15.8 per cent,respectively over control (sole crop)
  • Significantly higher grain and straw yield of wheat was observed in agri-horticulture system as compared to agri-silvihorticultural system. However, the grain yield of wheat under agri-silvhorticultural and agri-horticultural systems reduced up to 71.9 and 69.9 per cent, respectively over control (sole wheat). Maximum grain and straw yield of wheat was found in the interspaces of clone-83 followed by C-7. The average reduction in grain and straw yield of wheat under eucalypts (planted in February 2015 at 7×3 m) was 26.4 and 29.4 per cent, respectively over control (devoid of trees)
  • In five years, old poplar planted at 5×3 m spacing, recommended dose of fertilizer + additional dose of N (10, 20 and 30%) significantly increased the grain as well as straw yield over recommended dose of fertilizer in wheat. However, the differences between RDF + 10% additional dose of N, RDF + 20% additional dose of N and RDF + 30% additional dose of N were found non-significant.
  • Five years old poplar and eucalypts planted on field bunds exhibited significant reduction up to 6 m in fodder yield of sorghum and up to 3 m in grain yield of wheat from tree line.


  • The centre evaluated thirteen provenances of P. cineraria (Gujarat), 15 plus tree germplasm of local Sikar district and germplasm of six location source of Rajasthan viz., Bikaner, Jhujhunu, Churu, Sikar, Jaipur, Nagaur and one from Haryana (Hisar in rainfed arid conditions of Rajasthan.
  • Four tree species viz., P. cineraria, A. nilotica, A. tortilis and H. binata were planted at 5 m x 5 m in block plantation for evaluation of growth performance. The Data revealed that  tortilis registered maximum tree volume 0.92 m3 /tree followed by P. cineraria 0.25 m3 /tree and H. binata 0.22 m3 /tree after 23 years. 
  • Experiment on performance of Hardwickia binata in agri-silvicultural system indicated that the effect of tree spacing on growth performance was found significant. The tree height and dbh was increased up to 5-meter row spacing and received highest volume 0.35 cu m/tree. Thereafter, the growth was less pronounced with spacing. Thus, it is recommended that these trees gave good growth when planting at 5 x 5 m spacing in rainfed condition of arid zone.
  • In rainfed condition experiment under P. cineraria based agri-silviculture system highest yield 562.50 kg/ha recorded in cowpea RC 101 variety and lowest yield 183 kg/ha recorded in Pearl millet variety HHB 67 and significant variation were seen between crop varieties in comparison to control (without tree). Results on comparison of data on crop equivalent to Pearl millet and Clusterbean observed that the cowpea variety RC 101 performing better in comparisons to other crops and gave highest equivalent yield 1618 kg/ha and 777 kg/ha, respectively.
  • In rainfed condition experiment under H. binata based agri-silviculture system highest yield 500 kg/ha recorded in clusterbean varieties and lowest yield 168.75 kg/ha recorded in Pearl millet variety HHB 67 and significant variation were seen between crop varieties in comparison to control (without tree). Results on comparison of data on crop equivalent to Pearl millet and Clusterbean recoded, the moong bean variety SML-668 performing better in comparisons to other crops and gave highest equivalent yield 1426 kg/ha and 685 kg/ha, respectively which is at par to cowpea variety RC-101 with equivalent yield to Pearl millet and Clusterbean 1318 kg/ha and 633 kg/ha, respectively.


  • Ailanthus excelsa germplasm evaluation studies in rainfed condition revealed that among the thirty germplasm of Ardusa Mithivavadi and Soneripura villages seed sources is coming out to be the best performing in terms of growth parameters viz. plant height (10.43m) and collar diameter (26.65 cm) after ninth years of plantation. Collar diameter of different germplasm ranged from 17.62 to 26.65cm.
  • Significant difference among the ten elite progenies of neem along with a local check was observed, for their growth parameters in the multi locational coordinates trial. After fifteen years of plantation Progeny # 110 recorded greater plant height (8.41 m) and collar diameter (26.20 cm) over the rest of the progenies.
  • The Melia species evaluation studies revealed that genotype MD 05 was performing better in terms of growth parameters i.e. plant height (6.13 m) and collar girth (45.71 cm) and it was followed by MD 01 clonal source received from Mattapulum, TNAU.
  • Among the eleven genotype of Melia along with a local check a significantly difference was observed for their growth parameters under arid and semi-arid region of the Gujarat. Significantly higher plant Canopy N-S was observed in SDAUMD-11(128.25 cm) and it was followed by SDAUMD-9 (110.75 cm) over local check (94.06 cm). Canopy E-W was also significantly higher in SDAUMD-11 (126.53 cm) and it was followed by SDAUMD-9 (118.42 cm) and SDAUMD-8 (114.11 cm) than local check (95.92 cm).
  • In case of alternate boundary plantation of neem and ardusa maximum straw yield (1045 kg ha-1 ) of pearlmillet and grain yield (595 kg ha-1 ) of Amaranrhus crop in the pearlmillet
  • Amaranthus crop sequence were observed in middle part of the plot. Grain yield of pearlmillet was not received due to germination of seeds on earhead as continuous rainfall at the time of maturity of the crop. In boundary plantation of ardusa + neem, (40.96 cm) in south side. whereas, in case of neem plantation, maximum plant height (7.44 m) and collar diameter (16.50 cm) was recorded in south direction
  • Under Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) in Vagdadi village of Banaskantha district comprising of 51 farmers. the tribal farmers adopted different agroforestry systems viz. boundary plantation, horti pastoral systems, vadi project etc. under TSP. Major activities implemented under TSP were supply of improved seeds of various intercrops (castor, moongbean, clusterbean and oat), fertilizers and castor cake to the selected farmers of Vagdadi villages.


  • In provenance trial of Acacia nilotica var. indica, progeny of RHRAN-1 recorded significantly highest plant height (12.59 m), collar diameter (36.26 cm), DBH (31.21 cm) and bole height (2.81 m). The Acacia nilotica provenance RHRAN-36 recorded significantly highest plant height (9.26 m) but at par with all the entries studied. The entry RHRAN-57 recorded significantly highest collar diameter (24.35 cm) and DBH (19.46 cm) but at par with all the entries. The entry RHRAN-6 recorded significantly highest bole height (2.86 m) whereas the entry RHRAN-41 recorded highest number of branches (4.98). In  multilocation trial of Neem. The entry Sel-117 recorded significantly highest plant height (6.64 m) and collar diameter (22.58 cm) and DBH (15.52 cm) whereas, local entry recorded highest bole height (2.394 m).
  • In multilocation trial of Neem. The entry Sel-117 recorded significantly highest plant height (6.64 m) and collar diameter (22.58 cm) and DBH (15.52 cm) whereas, local entry recorded highest bole height (2.394 m).
  • In the experiment on evaluation of agri-horticulutral system of different fruit tree species with inter crop under irrigated condition, anola recorded maximum plant height (470.40 cm) and collar diameter (16 cm) in treatment mango with anola. Tamarind+Aonla cropping system registered highest branches per plant (4.3), The east-west spread of tree canopy was more of aonla in treatment mango in combination with aonla (438.3 cm), north-south spread (441.1 cm) was recorded in treatment T5 i.e. Tamarind+ Aonla of tamarind tree.
  •  Under effect of planting geometry on productivity of Teak under Agroforestry system in semi-arid condition the growth parameters viz., plant height, collar diameter, crown spread (East, West) and (North, South) of teak plants ranged from (272.43 to 335.07, 5.1 to 8.3, 107.25 to 188.4, 159.25 to 240.4 cm) respectively. The litter fall ranged from (120 to 129.7 kg ha-1 ) maximum plant height (335.07) cm was recorded under T6 (Teak + cowpea + mulching – fodder).


  • Agri-silviculture system shows that among the different tree species Ailanthus excelsa attained maximum plant height (22.89 m), GBH (115.56 cm), MAI of GBH (7.99 cm), timber volume (764.09 m3ha-1) and carbon sequestration (191.02 t ha-1) followed by tree species Tectona grandis and Faderbia albida
  • In the Evaluation of germplasm study, the height of A. excelsa varied from 5.50 m to 11.83m. Maximum height 11.83 m was attained by ACN/MHK/1 followed by ACN/MHK/2 i.e. 11.00 m. The Girth at breast height (GBH) varied from 26.33 cm to 60.00 cm. Highest girth at breast height (60.00 cm) was attained by ACN/MHK/1. Maximum tree volume  (106.50 m3) was estimated for ACN/MHK/1. Highest carbon sequestration 26.63 tons ha- 1 was estimated for ACN/MHK/1.
  • Among the different bamboo species under study Bambusa bambose, Bambusa balcoa and Dendrocalmus stoksii will prove better for cultivation in this region. 
  • Among different Melia dubia clones, it was observed that the maximum plant height was attained by M. dubia clone No. PDKV/ MTP 5 i.e. 7.67 meter (sd 4.7). The maximum collar diameter was attained by M. dubia clone No. PDKV/ MTP/5 i.e. 33.67 cm (sd 7.1). Maximum number of branches 36 .00 were recorded for clone No. PDKV/ MTP/5.


  • In provenance trial of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) seeds/seedling of seven provenances collected from different places [(viz; Jhansi (02), Faizabad (01), Nagpur (01), Raipur (1), Samastipur, Bihar (1) and Jabalpur (01)], were collected, raised seedling, and planted in the field under RBD design. At the age of 9½ years, provenance received from NRC Jhansi (T7) recorded higher plant height (875 cm) and collar diameter (182 mm) and DBH (145 mm).
  • Under 21 years old agri-silvicultural system (Dalbergia sissoo + Paddy-Wheat) where 4 pruning treatments (viz; no pruning, 25%, 50% and 75% pruning) and one open were carried out in main plot and three weed management practices (viz; T1-Pre emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 ], [T2- Hand weeding at 20 & 40 DAS], [T3- Post emergence application of Bispyribac- sodium @ 25 g a.i. ha-1 for paddy, Metribuzin @ 230 g ha-1 in wheat crop] in sub plot. Significant maximum grain yield of paddy was recorded under open condition (1982 kg ha-1 ) at par with 75% pruning (1674 kg ha-1 ) but significantly superior to all the pruning treatments whereas no pruning recorded significantly lowest grain yield (1097 kg ha-1 ). Among pruning intensities, significantly maximum grain yield was recorded under 75% pruning (1674 kg ha-1 ) at par with 50% pruning (1462 kg ha-1 ) but significantly superior to 25% pruning (1223 kg ha-1 ) and no pruning.
  •  In Gmelina arborea based agri-silvicultural system, the highest plant height (340.87 cm), collar diameter (88.20 mm) and dbh (57.68 mm) was recorded in sole G.arborea at 31/2 year after planting followed by G. arborea + cowpea-toria and G. arborea + greengram
  • toria. The lowest plant height (290.33 cm), collar diameter (75.20 mm) and dbh (49.01 mm) was observed in arborea + arhar.


  • Under neem germplasm evaluation trial, with 13 entries including a tissue cultured line and control were evaluated. Barring line -22 all entries performed better than the control. In respect of plant height, the Line-42 registered highest mean plant height of 12.75  meters and is followed by line -4 (10.8 m) and Line -38(10 m). In respect of girth of plant, the line -42 recorded highest mean value of 74 cm and is followed by line 44 (63.0cm) and Control (62.0 cm). In another set of neem germplasm, among the 12 lines, the plants of L- 16 line regained fresh growth which was reported as dead in the last year. Among the surviving lines L 15 recorded higher mean plant height of 9.7 m and girth of 85 cm. This was followed by line 14 (7.95 m) and line L-3 (7.4 m) for plant height. Whereas, for mean girth, line 15 (85 cm), line -14 (67 cm) and line 3 with 65.0 cm
  • Among the 11 germplasm lines of neem received CAFRI, Jhans, line 106 (90%) followed by lines 105 and 109 with (80%) each recorded highest survival. Among the test material, line 117 recorded a mean plant height of (7.88 m) followed by Line 118 (7.6 m) plant height. Whereas line -115 has recorded third highest plant height of 7.50 m. The line 117 recorded highest mean girth of 78 cm followed by line 115(75 cm). In Pongamia twenty
  • nine no of lines were tested, SRJ-3. SRJ-37, NGSR-13, and NGSR-14 registered highest survival of 100 percent even after 13 years of establishment. The entries showed wide variability in respect of plant height and diameter at Brest height. The entry SRJ-39 recorded highest plant height of 7.7 meters followed by SRJ-43 (7.24 m), SRJ-45(7.15 m).
  • In Tamarind plantation (15 years old trees), highest raw pod yield (2060 kg ha-1 ) was recorded. The average growth performance of Henna with double row produced significantly higher biomass (560 kg ha-1 ) with height (2.6 m).
  • In Mango based Agri-horti system, growing of sorghum-safflower-Cowpea produced Mean net returns and B:C ratio was influenced by nutrient management treatments. Higher net returns were recorded with 75% RDN + 25% N PM (Rs. 58,300 ha-1 , 1.60), followed by 100% RDF (Rs. 54,428 ha-1 ,1.55) 125% RDF (Rs. 54,554 ha-1 , 1.44) and sole crop without trees (Rs.52,295 ha-1 , 1.50) which was significantly higher than farmers practice, 25% FYM substitution and Azospirillum treatment. The income from filler crops like curry leaf, Moringa in the initial years is additional to main crop.
  • The marginal lands having low fertility status in semi-arid area topics is best utilized for adapting agri-silvi system. The performance of foxtail millet to nutrient management practice (75% RD N + 25% N poultry manure) in terms of higher yield (1690 kg ha-1 ) and fertility (OC 0.53%) in marginal lands in young plantations of Melia azedarach under rainfed condition is good. This system uses less inputs with easy maintenance. In addition to above benefits, carbon sequestration and total net returns in whole system i.e. tree + crop being Carbon stock (6.82 t ha-1 ), CO2 (25.02 t ha-1 ) and Rs. 50,007 ha-1 are additional benefits. The highest seed yield (2025 kg ha-1 ) recorded in 100% RDF > 50% RD N + Dry leaf litter (DLL) 10 t ha-1 (1886 kg ha-1 ) and 75% RD N + 25% N FYM (1796 kg ha-1 ) of moisture and nutrients as compared to sole crop without trees. Regarding soil parameters, the moisture conservation practice and nutrient management significantly influenced OC and available NPK. The highest content registered in agroforestry system i.e. 50% RD N + DLL 10 t ha-1 (0.62% and 206, 22.50, 223 kg ha-1 ).


  • Bamboo (Dendrocalamus stockssi) + Finger millet (Eleusiane coracana), Mango (Mangifera indica) + groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) + black gram (Vigna mungo) agroforestry systems are most popular in Konkan region of Maharashtra and it is recommended previously from this centre and conducted “Development of Dendrocalamus stocksii Munro based agroforestry practices for the tropical humid regions” for future sustainable use farmers management practice in Konkan region of Maharashtra.
  • In Acacia mangium based turmeric (Curcuma longa) system, the maximum height and yield of turmeric (24.43 cm and 5.425 t ha-1) was recorded by 100 % NPK followed by 80 % RDN + 100 % PK (23.35 cm and 5.368 t ha-1 ) and soil pH, EC, OC, N, P and K were recorded maximum under the treatment 100 % NPK followed by 80 % RDN + 100 % PK. While growing of any agriculture crop under mangium based as a nitrogen fixing trees species can be reduced dose of nitroegn and will be beneficial in future for the farmers.
  • Under Melia dubia based medicinal agroforestry system, the four years old Meliadubia species was harvested and observed dry weight of tree (121.33 kg per tree and 48.53 t/ha) and volume tree (6.47 cu. ft./ tree and 2588 cu. ft. ha-1 ). The optimum range of MOR (Modulus of rupture) 240.875 N/mm2 and MOE (Modulus of elasticity) 990.268 N/mm2 were observed. The expected income of Melia dubia will be Rs. 2,91,180/- (@Rs.6000/t). Among the medicinal plant species, root weight per plant ranged from 13.6 g (Adulsa) to 145 g (Agni month). Whereas, highest root length (110 cm.) and stem weight (2408 g) per plant was observed in Shivan. The maximum branches weight per plant was recorded by Agni month (1710.0g) followed by Shivan (302.48g). Tetu, Chitrak and Adulsa species leaves totally defoliated and Ran Wangi could not be survived due to heavy rainfall.
  • In mango based horti-postural system by cut and carry method, the height and DBH of mango were ranged from 1.99 m to 2.57 and 7.85 cm to 10.61 cm, respectively. Regarding the treatment T2-Mango + setaria grass was recorded significantly highest yield of 15.70 ton/ha, on dry weight basis followed by Themeda triandra (4.90 ton/ ha). The control treatment (Mango alone) was recorded the maximum height of 2.57 m and the highest DBH (10.61cm) was observed by (T3) Mango + local grass than other treatments. Maximum numbers of 3 cuttings were given by Setaria, Guinea grass, Local grasses and Themeda species. Ber and Moshi grasses could not be sustained in red ferruginous type of soil in high rainfall area.


  • Candidate Plus Trees in Kapok were identified from different Kapok growing regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. After nine years, tree height ranged from 11.85 m (Kallar MTPCP 8) to 14.95 m (Mettupalayam MTPCP 4) while the pod yield per tree was observed to range from 140 pods (Salakudi MTPCP 38) to 412 pods (Arachalur MTPCP 18). Pod yield of Arachalur progeny (MTPCP 18) worked out to be 1,14,124 pods ha-1 and the floss yield was 570 kgha-1 . Owing to good biometric growth and pod yield traits of Arachalur (MTPCP 18), multi-location trial of the progeny was carried out during 2107-18. Rooted stem cuttings of Arachalur progeny (MTPCP 18) were provided to farmers covering an area of 18 acres. Spacing recommended was 6 x 6 m amounting to 277 seedlings per ha.
  • Centre has assembled 20 progenies of Melia dubia collected from different parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Based on the evaluation, six progenies were observed to be superior in terms of growth traits. Among six progenies, Thalamalai I (MD 1) and Kallar (MD 5) was observed to be superior in growth traits.
  • Under Integrated tree fodder model for enhancing fodder productivity, Casuarina junghuhniana clone evaluated as the main crop along with four major tree fodder crops as intercrops viz., Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Melia dubia and a control. Maximum green fodder yield was recorded in T2 (Main crop + Leucaena leucocephala) followed by T1 (Main crop + Gliricidia sepium) while the lowest green fodder yield was recorded in T3 (Main crop + Melia dubia). At rotation age, the best compatibility was observed in C. junghuhniana + Leucaena leucocephala about main crop growth as well as green fodder yield.
  • For the promotion and development of Industrial Agroforestry for enhancing productivity and profitability through multi stakeholder partnership, a “Consortium of Industrial Agroforestry (CIAF)” was established to benefit the farmers, wood-based industries, research organization, rural industries, nursery growers, felling and marketing group, NGOs, financial institutions and members of men and women self-help groups.


  • Irrespective of the harvesting interval fodder sorghum Co 31 intercropped with Cocus nucifera documented a yield of 22.23 tonnes / harvest / hectare. Significantly highest yield of 26.31 tonnes / harvest / hectare was recorded when Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + 2 Kg Azospirillum + 2 Kg Phosphobacteria was used as manure. Cyanogenic glycosides / Dhurrin content of fodder sorghum Co 31 was significantly lower with increase in the maturity of the crop.
  •  The yield of fodder cowpea Co(FC) 8 in Psidium guajava based pasture system irrespective of different organic manures was 5.33 tonnes / hectare. Significantly highest yield of 6.30tonnes / hectare was recorded in when Vermicompost @5 t ha -1 + Rhizobium (600 g/ha) was used. The overall yield of guava, irrespective of manuring adopted was 14.7 kg/tree.
  •  Among the tree fodders in the silvipasture, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium had significantly higher microbial biomass production than Albizzia lebbeck at both 24 and 48 hours of incubation. Significantly highest total gas, methane and carbon dioxide was produced by Albizzia lebbeck at 24 hours of incubation.
  • Gliricidia sepium leaves were incorporated in complete feed for ducks at 2.5 % inclusion level. The average weight gain documented in Aarni ducks fed this feed at the end of seven weeks was 743.14 g and the overall FCR was 2.39. Progressive farmers in the Kancheepuram District were identified and tree leaf meal incorporated poultry feed / duck feed was distributed UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCES, DHARWAD, KARNATAKA
  • Among the twenty provenances of neem studied, the maximum height was observed in Raichur (14.74 m) and Bagalkot (14.13 m) provenances followed by Bailahongal (14.12 m) as compared to other provenances. The neem seed yield was recorded highest in Bijapur (2.60 kg/plant) and Raichur (2.50 kg/plant) when compared to other provenances. Among the fourteen tamarind collections, the growth of NTI-80 (8.83 m) and NTI-5 (8.50 m) were significantly higher than the other collections. The maximum diameter at breast height was recorded in NTI-14 (23.84 cm) followed by NTI-77 (23.02 cm) and SMG-13 (22.16 cm) followed by other collections. Tamarind fruit yield was higher in the SMG-13 (19.33 kg/plant) NTI-14 (18.95 kg/plant) as compared to other provenances.
  • In an investigation of sapota – timber tree species-based agroforestry system, the height and DBH was significantly higher in the Pterocarpus marsupium (9.77 m and 27.23 cm) when compared to other tree species. Growth of Sapota was significantly higher in association with Sapota + Lagerstroemia lanceolata (4.65 m) followed by Sapota + Pterocarpus marsupium (4.58 m) as compared to sapota with other tree species. Fruit yield of sapota was significantly higher when sapota grown alone (31.25 kg/plant) followed by Sapota + Tectona grandis (17.29 kg/plant). The Soybean grain and haulm yield was significantly higher with Sapota + field crops (384.6 kg/ha and 327.6 kg/ha respectively) followed by field crops with Sapota + Tectona grandis (260.8 kg/ha and 242.6 kg/ha). The yield of Safflower was significantly higher when grown Sapota with Lagerstroemia lanceolata (120.5 kg/ha) when compared to other systems.
  • In a study on Melia dubia based agroforestry system, maximum height was recorded under 4 x 2.5 m spacing (10.67 m) followed by 4 x 2.0 m spacing (10.48 m) while the lowest was recorded under 4 x 4 m (9.12 m). DBH of Melia dubia was significantly higher in 4 x 4 m spacing (20.64 cm) followed by 4 x 3.5 m spacing (20.02 cm) as compared to other spacings tested.
  • The carbon sequestration of different timber tree species grown with sapota based agroforestry systems was studied and the total biomass and carbon sequestration was significantly higher in Eucalyptus tereticornis (108.68 ton/ha and 54.34 ton/ha respectively) followed by Tectona grandis (107.06 ton/ha and 53.53 ton/ha respectively) as compared to other tree species. Among the sapota based agroforestry system, biomass and carbon sequestration was significantly higher when sapota grown with Lagerstroemia lanceolata (37.64 ton/ha and 18.82 ton/ha respectively) as compared to other agroforestry systems.
  • Among the five fodder tree species evaluated, maximum collar diameter was recorded in Sesbania grandiflora (27.78 cm) followed by Gliricidia sepium (19.63 cm) as compared to other species. The number of branches were significantly higher in Sesbania grandiflora (10.52 per plant) followed by Leucaena lucocephala (6.21 per plant) as compared to other fodder tree species. Green biomass was significantly higher in Calliandra calothyrsus (3166.3 kg/ha) followed by Sesbania grandiflora (2719.7 kg/ha) as compared to other fodder tree species. Moisture content was higher in Sesbania grandiflora (2.90 %) followed by Gliricidia sepium (2.76 %) when compared to other fodder species. Crude protein and total ash were higher in Sesbania grandiflora (23.96 % and 12.45 % respectively).


  • Melia dubia has been identified as a fast-growing multipurpose tree for the region, since majority of the farmers are small and marginal growing of melia on bund and boundary is a common practice. The survey was conducted to assess the performance of Melia dubia under bund planting, boundary planting and block plantations in the farmer’s field in Bangalore rural district. The results revealed that bund planting would accommodate 45- 60 trees acre-1 , the eight years plantations total wood volume is around 486 cuf. with annual returns of 1,81,000 acre-1 . The boundary plantations in one acre 65-78 trees which accounts to 859 – 956cft with returns of 3 – 4 lakhs acre-1 . The block plantation with 144 – 168 trees acre-1 results in 1345-1838 cft of wood volume and returns of Rs. 6,44,450/-.
  •  Fodder trees are important feed sources for livestock in a wide range of farming systems. In this regard a field experiment on perennial tree-based agroforestry system for sustainable fodder production was initiated. The results indicated that planting of tree fodders in 500 m alley viz., Moringa olifera, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania grandiflora, Calliandra calothrysus and Leucaena leucocephala resulted in production of 15-16 tons of green fodder. The alley interspace is used for production of perennial multicut cereal fodder. The cereal fodder production and legume tree fodder in the ratio of 60:40 sustain fodder requirement of 2-3 milching cows which resulted in improvement in the total income of the farmers.
  • Agroforestry based Integrated farming system models was developed and recommended for adoptions. The results of the modules revealed that, The IFS in rainfed area recorded higher net returns of Rs. 87,900 whereas, under irrigated IFS net return was Rs. 3,92,000, correspondingly higher employment generation (462- and 842-man days, respectively) as compared to improved crops and cropping system alone. Introduction of forage trees like Sesbania grandiflora, Melia dubia and Albizia species on bunds provided balanced forage yield during lean and regular season. Introduction of Glyricidia sepium on bunds yielded large quantity of green biomass (>5t ha-1 ) required for the production of compost (>10 t/year) and Vermicompost (>1.5 t/year), which helped in improving soil health and reduction in cost of cultivation due to reduction in cost of external input.KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, THRISSUR
  •  The provenance evaluation trial on Acacia mangium revealed that the provenances like Kuranda, Arufi Village and Upper Aramia showed better performance than other provenances and can be screened for further tree improvement programme for A. mangium. They can also be advocated as seed source for future planting programmes.
  •  In the teak provenance evaluation trial, best performance was observed from Nilambur provenance. Among the 30 different teak accessions from South India, the better ones were from Nedumkayam-1, Nedumkayam-2, Cherupuzha and Nellikutha-5.
  •  The plant density-cum-pruning trial for Acacia mangium presented a leveling trend in growth across stand densities after 15 years of stand growth. However, the mean tree volume (0.27 to 0.56 m3 ) recorded significant increase with decreasing planting density.
  •  Hedgerow planting of calliandra in the interspaces of coconut at a close spacing of 60 cm, pruning at 1m height and at interval of 3 months ensures higher forage yield and quality. Annual dry fodder yield to the tune of 12 to 14 tons/ ha of coconut garden can be expected from second year onwards. Economic yield expected up to 10 years. In addition, the intercropping practices can almost double the carbon fixation rates than in coconut monoculture systems and provides environmental services via climate change mitigation.


  • Centre conducted D and D exercise and observed that important agroforestry practices found in the area were plantation crops in combination with trees, boundary planting, bund planting, scattered trees and homegradens. Among the different agroforestry practices scattered trees in coffee plantation (plantation crops in combination with trees) was found to be the highest (36 %) followed by home gardens (25 %). Information on tree domestication revealed that a greater number of native species with more of conservation values were preferred for domestication compared to exotics and commercial species
  •  Under Tribal support programme the tribal communities in the Virajpet taluk were supported through different schemes. For Tribal nutrition security programme, provided chicks to have poultry birds to ensure supply of animal proteins and training programme on kitchen garden and mushroom cultivation were organized and important vegetable seeds and mushroom spawns were distributed to tribal beneficiaries. To enhance the tribal income piglets were distributed to tribal beneficiaries. It is prudent to mention that some of the tribal community members produced piglets and each piglet was sold at Rs. 3000/-. Honey produced from the bee boxes supplied to the tribal beneficiaries resulted in production around 30 Kg of honey which were sold at the rate of Rs. 500/kg. Majority of the tribal hamlets were not having electricity and students who were studying in the hamlets were provided solar lamps. Many beneficiaries were able to study during night and could secure good marks. It is prudent to mention that parents of such children appreciated the initiatives and requested to extend to other beneficiaries.v