In neutral soil, targeted yield of jute (30 q/ha) and rice (40 q/ha) was achieved through soil test based fertilizer application along with FYM (@ 5 t/ha) in jute-rice cropping system at Kalyani, West Bengal. The increase in fibre yield of jute and grain yield of rice was 29-44% and 33-55%, respectively over recommended fertilizer dose.
In acid soils of North Bengal, Assam and Odisha, the desired target for jute (30 q/ha) could be achieved when fertilizer was applied based on ST-TY (soil test – target yield) equations along with 5 t/ha FYM and soil was ameliorated with lime (@ 50% of lime requirement) and the resultanat increase in fibre yield was around 27-32% over recommended fertilizer dose.
In mesta, the targeted yield (30 q/ha) could be achieved with soil test based fertilizer application and the fibre yield was 70% higher than that with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (17.77 q/ha) at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh.
Application of nitrogen (60 kg/ha) in three equal splits at basal, 3-4 weeks after sowing (WAS) and 6-7 WAS recorded maximum fibre yield of mesta at Kendrapara, Aduthurai and Amadalavalasa and is recommended for those regions.
In mesta, substitution of recommended inorganic fertilizer (100% RDF) to the tune of 50% by locally available organic sources recorded 12 -16% increase in fibre yield of the crop over recommended fertilizer dose and also maintained the available nutrient status of the soil in Odisha.
In ramie, application of 45 kg N/ha/cut with 25% of N through FYM or ramie compost recorded significantly higher annual fibre yield (18.67 q/ha) of ramie in South Bengal and Assam and is recommended for these regions.
In sisal, highest number of leaves (23-36) and maximum leaf length (91.5 – 95 cm) were recorded with combined application of NPK (60:13:50, kg/ha) and sisal waste (20 t/ha) at Bamra, Odisha while at Amadalavalasa (Andhra Pradesh), application of NPK (60:13:50, kg/ha) and poultry manure (4 t/ha) recorded maximum number of leaves/plant (37.3), leaf length (99.8 cm) and green weight of plants (33.29 t/ha).
Maximum fibre yield of flax was recorded at Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh (19.65 q/ha) when the crop was sown on end October with a nitrogen dose of 80 kg /ha while maximum dry biomass (35.6 q/ha) was recorded at Panthnagar, Uttarakhand when the crop received N fertilizer @ of 80 kg /ha. The optimum sowing time and nitrogen dose of flax at Coochbehar, West Bengal was found to be mid-November and 40 kg N/ha, respectively.
Pre-emergence application [butachlor 5G @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha or butachlor 50% EC @ 1.0 – 1.5 kg a.i./ha (within 24 hours of sowing) (both rainfed and irrigated) or pretilachlor 50% EC @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha (in case of assured irrigation)] followed by one hand weeding or post-emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g a.i./ha + sticker @ 1 ml/l at 15 days after emergence (DAE) + 1 hand weeding / mechanical weeding (nail weeder) at 15-20 days after herbicide application gave better weed control in jute in West Bengal, Assam, Odisha and Bihar and is re recommended for thosed jute growing regions.
In mesta, pre-emergence application of butachlor 50% EC @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha or butachlor 5G @ 5 kg a.i./ha followed by one hand weeding recorded higher fibre yield and better weed control at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh while post emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g a.i./ha + sticker @ 1 ml/l at 15 DAE + 1 hand weeding at 15-20 days after herbicide application showed better weed control in mesta at Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu and are recommended for those mesta growing regions.
Under drought situations, application of sulphur @ 30 kg/ha along with recommended dose of NPK and one life saving irrigation is recommended for jute and mesta.
Application of CRIJAF microbial consortium had reduced the retting duration by 6 -7 days in West Bengal, 5-6 days in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and by 10 days in Assam in jute while in mesta, the decrease in retting duration ranged from 6-9 days in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
The fibre quality of jute and mesta also increased at least two grades with application of microbial retting consortium which resulted to an additional return of about Rs. 3000 – 5000/q fibre.
Management of disease and pests
Foliar application of spiromesifen 240 SC @ 0.7 ml/L at 35 DAS + neem (Azadirachtin 10,000ppm) @ 3 ml/L at 50 DAS, or spiromesifen 240 SC @ 0.7 ml/L at 35 DAS and 50 DAS is recommended for management of yellow mite in jute in south Bengal.
For disease free seed production, sowing of jute seed crop during mid-August along with spraying of 0.1% carbendazim at pod maturation stage has been recommended for maximum seed yield with least seed infection and discoloration in jute seed in South Bengal while mid-July sowing followed by application of carbendazim (0.2%) at pod maturation stage is recommended for Katihar region to reduce the discoloration in jute seed due to disease.
The integrated organic module consisting of FYM @ 5t/ha + seed treatment with Azotobactor @ 5 g/kg + PSB @ 5g/kg seed + viride @ 5g/kg seed + soil application @ 2 kg/ha at 21 DAS + P. fluorescens spray @ 0.2% at 45 DAS + neem oil @ 0.03% is recommended for pest and disease management in jute in south Bengal and Assam.
Spraying of a8 EC (0.015%) followed by lamda cyhalothrin 5 EC (0.003%) gave better results against sucking and lepidopteran pests of jute and is recommended for jute growing regions.
In roselle, seed treatment with cymoxanil 8% WP @ 3g/kg and 0.3% foliar spray at 30 and 45 DAS was found most effective against foot and stem rot of mesta at Barrackpore, West Bengal whereas seed treatment with ridomyl (3 g/kg seed) + soil application of Trichoderma @ 4 g/kg FYM or cyamoxanil + soil application of Pseudomonasfluorescens @ 20 g/kg FYM was best for reducing the foot and stem rot (%) incidence and increasing the fibre yield significantly in Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh.
Acetamiprid @ 0.2 g/l was effective in reducing whitefly population and controlling yellow vein mosaic disease incidence in mesta at Amadalavalsa, Andhra Pradesh while, spraying of imidacloprid 17.8 SL (0.004%) followed by acetamiprid 20 WG (0.0015%) are the effective insecticides for reducing the whitefly population and is recommended for controlling yellow vein mosaic disease of kenaf in North Bengal and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Tribal Sub Plan Programme
The Tribal Sub Plan programme had been conducted in 7 districts of West Bengal, Odisha and Assam covering 100 ha area and more than 1000 tribal farmers participated in the programme. The improved production technologies of both fibre and seed crop of jute as well as the improved microbial retting technology developed by ICAR-CRIJAF had been demonstrated to the farmers. Technology demonstration was also done on boro paddy, mustard, rabi maize, winter vegetables, bee keeping, artificial insemination, poultry, etc.
The improved production technology of jute (including new varieties like JRO 204, line sowing through CRIJAF Multi Row Seed Drill, mechanical weeding through CRIJAF Nail Weeder, Integrated nutrient management, etc.) resulted in additional net return of Rs. 14820/ha to Rs. 18556/ha in farmers’ fields over traditional practices in 24 Parganas North, Alipurduar and Coochbehar districts of West Bengal; Nagaon and Morigaon districts of Assam and Keonjhar districts of Odisha.
The improved crop protection technology of jute resulted in additional fibre yield of 10 – 11.5 q/ha and additional net return of Rs. 30675/ha to Rs. 34750/ha in the farmers’ fields over traditional practices in Keonjhar districts of Odisha.
Improved microbial retting of jute fibres in farmers’ fields using CRIJAF microbial retting consortium ‘CRIJAF Sona’ improved the fibre quality by at least 2 grades and fetched additiona return of Rs. 3346/ha to Rs. 3428/ha over traditional retting practices at Assam and West Bengal.
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