Cropping System Research
- Mesta – maize cropping sequence recorded maximum system fibre equivalent yield (79.71 q/ha) , net return (Rs. 2431825/ha) and B:C ratio (2.26) followed by mesta – groundnut crop sequence at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh and is recommended for the deficit rainfall situation.
- Maximum mesta equivalent yield (90.10 q/ha), net return (Rs. 241720/ha) and B:C ratio (8.56) was recorded with mesta + maize intercropping (2:1) at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh and is suitable for the rainfed uplands of the region. At Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, intercropping of mesta + upland paddy (3:4) recorded maximum mesta equivalent yield (36.35 q/ha) followed by mesta + groundnut (3:4) (31.94 q/ha).
- Intercropping of sisal with pulses (blackgram, green gram, cowpea and horse gram) and oilseed crops (sesamum, niger) increased sisal fibre equivalent yield by about 2.25 – 5.10 q/ha over sole sisal crop yield (6.22 q fibre/ha) at Bamra, Odisha and is recommended for the region. The sisal + legumes / oilseed intercropping is also promising results at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh.
- In neutral soil, targeted yield of jute (3.2 t/ha) was achieved through soil test based fertilizer application along with FYM (@ 5 t/ha) in jute-rice cropping system at Katihar, Bihar and Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh and is recommended for the region.
- In acid soils of Assam, the desired target for jute (3.2 t/ha) could be achieved when fertilizer was applied based on ST-TY (soil test – target yield) equations along with 5 t/ha FYM and soil was ameliorated with lime (@ 50% of lime requirement) and the increase in fibre yield was around 35-37% over recommended fertilizer dose and is recommended for the region.
- In mesta, the targeted yield (2.8 t/ha) could be achieved with soil test based fertilizer application along with lime (25% LR) and organic manure (@ 5 t/ha) and is recommended for Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh and Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu.
- Maximum fibre yield of sunnhemp was recorded with fertilizer dose of NPK @ 20: 60: 60 kg/ha at Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh (9.5 q/ha) and at Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu (9.59 q/ha) and is recommended for these regions.
- Application of nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha/cut and potassium @ 50 kg/ha/cut recorded maximum fibre yield (18.31 – 20.31 q/ha) of ramie both in south and north Bengal conditions as well as in Assam.
- In ramie, application of 45 kg N/ha/cut with 25% of N through FYM or ramie compost and planting in ridge and furrow system recorded significantly higher annual fibre yield (18.67 q/ha) of ramie in South Bengal and Assam and is recommended for these regions. The organic treatments also improved the nutrient status of soil and nutrient uptake by the crop at both the sites also.
- In sisal, combined application of NPK @ 90:30:60 kg/ha and sisal waste (@ 20 t/ha) recorded highest number of leaves (132.5 x 103/ha), maximum leaf length (114.7 cm) and maximum fibre yield (25.4 q/ha) at Bamra, Odisha and is recommended for the state. This also led to savings of 30 kg N/ha through INM practise and improves the fertility status of soil.
- Irrigation of flax based on 0.8 IW/CPE ratio along with N dose of 80 kg/ha recorded maximum fibre yield (18.7 q/ha) and led to a savings of 40 kg N/ha at Barrackpore, West Bengal and is also recommended for the south Bengal region. In north Bengal, sowing of flax during 1st week of November with N dose of 80 kg/ha is recommended as it gave higher fibre yield (16.51 – 16.35 q/ha) of the crop.
- The weed diversity of the jute and mesta growing regions had been studied. In jute, the dominant weed species in different blocks of – Kalyani, West Bengal (Cyperus rotundus) and Coochbehar, West Bengal (Phyllanthus niruri); Katihar, Bihar (Cyperus rotundus); Kendrapara, Odisha (Echinochloa colonum); Nagaon, Assam (Cynodon dactylon in grass, Mimosa pudica in broad leaves and Cyperus rotundus in sedges) had been identified. Similarly in mesta, the major weeds identified were – Amadalavalasa (Cynodon dactylon), Jalumuru (Digitaria sanguinalis) and Buraj (Echinochloa sp.) among grassy weeds and Celotia argentia as dominant broad leaved weed in all blocks of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. Similarly, Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus iria were the most dominant weeds in mesta in all the farmers’ fields in all blocks of Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu.
- In jute, application of quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g + ethoxysulfuron @ 50 g/ha at 15 DAS fb one hand weeding recorded maximum weed control efficiency, fibre yield and net return at Kalyani and Coochbehar, West Bengal; Kendrapara, Odisha and Kkatihar, Bihar and is recommended for these jute growing regions.
- Pre-emergence application pretilachlor 50% EC @ 900 g a.i./ha (with assured irrigation)] followed by one hand weeding at 15 DAE or post-emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g a.i./ha + ethoxysulfuron @ 50 g/ha at 15 DAE + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAE gave better weed control in jute in in mesta at Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu and are recommended for those mesta growing regions.
- Post-emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 5% EC @ 60 g a.i./ha + ethoxysulfuron @ 50 g/ha at 15 DAE + 1 hand weeding at 30 DAE recorded higher seed yield of jute (16.13 q/ha), weed control efficiency (60.46%) and B:C ratio (3.26) at Rahuri, Maharashtra and is recommended for the region.
- Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 0.75-1.0 kg a.i./ha had been found most suitable for weed control in fibre flax at Barrackpore, West Bengal as it recorded highest fibre yield (17.aa – 18.62 q/ha) and hifgest weed control efficiency (72.2 – 81.4%) and is recommended for flax cultivation in south Bengal condition.
- Sowing of jute in furrows (25 cm apart and 4-5 cm deep) developed by 9 tyne cultivator followed by straw mulching @ 1.5 t/ha recorded is recommended for jute in South Bengal and Odisha and for mesta in Andhra Pradesh under deficit rainfall situation.
- Under drought situations, application of sulphur @ 30 kg/ha along with recommended dose of NPK and one life saving irrigation is recommended for jute and mesta.
- Planting of ramie in ridge and furrow method recorded higher moisture retention in soil and also higher water use efficiency (25 -41% higher) over flat bed planting in ramie in south Bengal condition and is recommended for the region.
- Application of CRIJAF microbial consortium had reduced the retting duration by 6 -7 days in West Bengal, 5-6 days in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and by 7-8 days in Assam in jute while in mesta, the decrease in retting duration ranged from 6-9 days in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- The fibre quality of jute and mesta also increased at least two grades with application of microbial retting consortium which resulted to an additional return of about Rs. 300 – 500/q fibre.
- Maximum seed yield of kenaf (12.5 q/ha) was recorded with sowing in mid-June and topping at 45 DAS at Rahuri, Maharashtra and is recommended for the region.
- Growing of sunnhemp at a closer spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm along with fertilizer dose of NPK @ 20:40:40 kg/ha recorded maximum seed yield of 18.5 q/ha and is recommended for the region.
- At Amadalavalasa, Andhra Pradesh, growing of sunnhemp at wider spacing of 60 cm x 15 cm and fertilizer dose of NPK @ 20:60:40 kg/ha recorded maximum seed yield of 10.6 q/ha and is recommended for the region.
Management of disease and pests
- Survey and surveillance of insects and pest of jute and mesta had been conducted in all the AINPNF centres and their adjoining areas. In jute, yellow mite, semilooper, Bihar hairy caterpillar and stem weevil was found as the most common insect pest. Stem rot, anthracnose and mosaic diseases were most common in jute in all the jute growing areas.
- Among the capsularis germplasm screened, 20 germplasm were found to be resistant to yellow mite, 3 were found resistant to stem weevil and 16 were found resistant to stem rot. Among the olitorius germplasm screened, 15 germplasm were found resistant to yellow mite, 17 were found resistant to stem weevil and 15 were resistant to stem rot.
- Among the kenaf germplasm screened, 07 were found tolerant to leafhopper, 05 were resistant to whitefly, 04 were most promising to phoma blight. In roselle germplasm, 37 were free from aphid infestation.
- The location specific management practices recommended for best control of stem rot in jute are – Barrackpore, WB : seed treatment + spraying of carbendazim at 45 DAS; Nagaon, Assam: seed treatment + spraying of tricyclozole + propiconazole (@ 1 ml/l & 0.1%) at 40-45 DAS; Kendrapara, Odisha & Katihar, Bihar: tebuconazole @ 1.5 ml/kg followed by foliar spray of 0.15% at 40-45 DAS; Coochbehar, WB: seed treatment Azoxystrobin + Difenconazole @ 1.0 ml/kg seed + spraying of Azoxystrobin + Difenconazole @ 0.075% at 40-45 DAS.
- Foliar spray of agricultural grade mineral oil @ 3.0 ml/l + neem oil @ 3 ml/l at 35 DAS and 50 DAS gave best control of yellow mite in jute and is recommended for Coochbehar, WB; Kendrapara, Odisha and Nagaon, Assam.
- The IPM module comprising of – line sowing, seed treatment with carbendazim 50 WP @ 2 g/kg seed, spraying of spiromesifen 240 EC @ 0.7 ml/l at 35 DAS, spraying of tebuconazole @ 0.15% at 45 DAS + spraying of –cyhalothrene 5 EC @ 0.6 ml/l at 35 DAS recorded significantly lower yellow mite infestation and is recommended for control of yellow mite in south and north Bengal, Assam and Odisha and also for control of semilooper in jute in Odisha.
- The wilt disease of flax could be successfully controlled at Barrackpore by application of neem cake @ 100 g/m2 followed by seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum @ 10 g/kg of seed and its soil application @ 1 kg/ha and is recommended for the region.
- Seed treatment of flax with azoxystrobin 25% SC @ 1 ml/kg seed can successfully control flax wilt in Assam and is recommended.
Tribal Sub Plan Programme
- The Tribal Sub Plan programme had been conducted in 05 districts of West Bengal, Odisha and Assam covering 300 ha area and around 1400 tribal farmers participated in the programme. The improved production technologies of both fibre and seed crop of jute as well as the improved microbial retting technology developed by ICAR-CRIJAF had been demonstrated to the farmers. Technology demonstration was also done on boro paddy, mustard, rabi maize, winter vegetables, bee keeping, artificial insemination, poultry, etc.
- The field demonstrations of new varieties like JRO 204, line sowing using CRIJAF Multi Row Seed Drill, mechanical weeding using CRIJAF Nail Weeder, Integrated nutrient management, IPM and jute-mung intercropping recorded 1.68 – 4.5 q/ha more fibre yield and additional net return of Rs. 7133 – 18460/ha over farmers’ practices at Matiagacha and Srikrishnapur villages of North 24 Paraganas, West Bengal.
- Demonstrations of new varieties like JRO 204 and JBO 2003-H, line sowing using CRIJAF Multi Row Seed Drill, mechanical weeding using CRIJAF Nail Weeder recorded additional fibre yield of 2-6 q/ha and increased the profitability of jute farming by Rs. 7400 – 26200/ha in farmers’ fields at Badalgir, Atialdanga, Jagirbalabari villages of Coochbehar district of West Bengal.
- Demonstrations of new varieties like JRO 204 and JBO 2003-H, line sowing using CRIJAF Multi Row Seed Drill, mechanical weeding using CRIJAF Nail Weeder recorded additional fibre yield of 2-6 q/ha and increased the profitability of jute farming by Rs. 7400 – 26200/ha in farmers’ fields at Badalgir, Atialdanga, Putimari, Rajarhat and Jagirbalabari villages of Coochbehar district of West Bengal.
- The improved crop protection technology of jute resulted in additional fibre yield of 10 – 11.5 q/ha and additional net return of Rs. 30675/ha to Rs. 34750/ha in the farmers’ fields over traditional practices in Beusahi and Dihasahi villages of Keonjhar district of Odisha.
- Demonstration of new variety Tarun and improved package of practices in jute recorded 7.81 – 12.92 q/ha additional yield and additional income of Rs. 12100 – 13300/ha over farmers’ practice at Kotohguri, Mazgaon Jajori and Itapara villages of Nagaon and Morigaon districts of Assam.
- Balanced fertilizer application in rice recorded c10.5 – 12.3 q/ha additional grain yield with additional earning of Rs. 8100/ha to Rs. 12200/ha over farmers’ practice at Assam.
- Improved microbial retting of jute fibres in farmers’ fields using CRIJAF microbial retting consortium ‘CRIJAF Sona’ improved the fibre quality by at least 2 grades and fetched additiona return of Rs. 3000/ha to Rs. 4428/ha over traditional retting practices at Assam and West Bengal.